An quick course overview on the meaning of justice as described in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics.
Enlightenment Quotes on Temperance
"Among the kinds of emotions, which, by the last proposition, must be very numerous, the chief are luxury, drunkenness, lust, avarice, and ambition, being merely species of love or desire, displaying the nature of those emotions in a manner varying according to the object, with which they are concerned. For by luxury, drunkenness, lust, avarice, ambition, &c., we simply mean the immoderate love of feasting, drinking, venery, riches, and fame. Furthermore, these emotions, in so far as we distinguish them from others merely by the objects wherewith they are concerned, have no contraries. For temperance, sobriety, and chastity, which we are wont to oppose to luxury, drunkenness, and lust, are not emotions or passive states, but indicate a power of the mind which moderates the last-named emotions. …
Again, I have already pointed out, that temperance, sobriety, and chastity indicate rather a power than a passivity of the mind."
"Virtue is the faculty of getting and preserving that which is good; and the faculty of doing many and great things well.
The kinds of it are these:
1. Justice, which is a virtue whereby every man obtains what by law is his.
2. Fortitude, which is a virtue by which a man carries himself honourably and according to the laws, in time of danger.
3. Temperance, which is a virtue whereby a man governs himself in matter of pleasure according to the law.
4. Liberality, which is a virtue by which we benefit others in matter of money.
5. Magnanimity, which is a virtue by which a man is apt to do great benefits.
6. Magnificence, which is a virtue by which a man is apt to be at great cost.
7. Prudence, which is an intellectual virtue, by which a man is able to deliberate well concerning any good leading to felicity."
"In the command of those appetites of the body consists that virtue which is properly called temperance. To restrain them within those bounds, which regard to health and fortune prescribes, is the part of prudence. But to confine them within those limits, which grace, which propriety, which delicacy, and modesty require, is the office of temperance."
"To abstain from pleasure too, to curb and restrain our natural passions for enjoyment, which was the office of temperance, could never be desirable for its own sake. The whole value of this virtue arose from its utility, from its enabling us to postpone the present enjoyment for the sake of a greater to come, or to avoid a greater pain that might ensue from it. Temperance, in short, was nothing but prudence with regard to pleasure."
"There are qualities which greatly aid and strengthen a good will; but they have not any inward worth of their own, and will be found always to presuppose a good will, which limits the praise they deservedly carry, and prevents us from regarding them as absolutely and in every respect good. Temperance, self-command, and calm consideration are not only good for many things, but even seem to compose part of the worth of personal character. There is, however, much awanting to enable us to designate them altogether good, notwithstanding the encomiums passed upon them by the ancients. For, apart from the maxims of a good will, they may be perverted; and a calm, resolute, calculating villain is rendered at once more dangerous and more detestable by possessing such qualities."