Quotes on Climate Change 101

"This generation has altered the composition of the atmosphere on a global scale through radioactive materials and a steady increase in carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels. Entire regional airsheds, crop plant environments, and river basins are heavy with noxious materials. Motor vehicles and home heating plants, municipal dumps and factories continually hurl pollutants into the air we breathe. Each day almost 50,000 tons of unpleasant, and sometimes poisonous, sulfur dioxide are added to the atmosphere, and our automobiles produce almost 300,000 tons of other pollutants."

President Lyndon B. Johnson
The American Presidency Project
February 8, 1965
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101

"The United States is strongly committed to the IPCC process of international cooperation on global climate change. We consider it vital that the community of nations be drawn together in an orderly, disciplined, rational way to review the history of our global environment, to assess the potential for future climate change, and to develop effective programs. The state of the science, the social and economic impacts, and the appropriate strategies all are crucial components to a global resolution. The stakes here are very high; the consequences, very significant."

President George H. W. Bush
The American Presidency Project
February 5, 1990
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101

"So, the United States will continue its efforts to improve our understanding of climate change -- to seek hard data, accurate models, and new ways to improve the science -- and determine how best to meet these tremendous challenges. Where politics and opinion have outpaced the science, we are accelerating our support of the technology to bridge that gap. And we are committed to coming together periodically for international assessments of where we stand. ...

Where developing nations are concerned, I know some argue that we'll have to abandon the free-market principles of prosperous economies. In fact, we think it's all the more crucial in the developing countries to harness incentives of the free enterprise system in the service of the environment. I believe we should make use of what we know. We know that the future of the Earth must not be compromised. We bear a sacred trust in our tenancy here and a covenant with those most precious to us -- our children and theirs. We also understand the efficiency of incentives and that well-informed free markets yield the most creative solutions. We must now apply the wisdom of that system, the power of those forces, in defense of the environment we cherish."

President George H. W. Bush
The American Presidency Project
February 5, 1990
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101

"On Earth Day I made a commitment to reduce our emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. And I asked for a blueprint on how to achieve this goal. In concert with all other nations, we simply must halt global warming. It is a threat to our health, to our ecology, and to our economy. I know that the precise magnitude and patterns of climate change cannot be fully predicted. But global warming clearly is a growing, long-term threat with profound consequences. And make no mistake about it, it will take decades to reverse."

President William J. Clinton
The American Presidency Project
1993
19
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101

"My Cabinet-level working group has met regularly for the last 10 weeks to review the most recent, most accurate, and most comprehensive science. They have heard from scientists offering a wide spectrum of views. They have reviewed the facts, and they have listened to many theories and suppositions. The working group asked the highly respected National Academy of Sciences to provide us the most up-to-date information about what is known and about what is not known on the science of climate change.

First, we know the surface temperature of the Earth is warming. It has risen by .6 degrees Celsius over the past 100 years. There was a warming trend from the 1890s to the 1940s, cooling from the 1940s to the 1970s, and then sharply rising temperatures from the 1970s to today.

There is a natural greenhouse effect that contributes to warming. Greenhouse gases trap heat and thus warm the Earth because they prevent a significant proportion of infrared radiation from escaping into space. Concentration of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, have increased substantially since the beginning of the industrial revolution. And the National Academy of Sciences indicates that the increase is due in large part to human activity.

Yet, the Academy's report tells us that we do not know how much effect natural fluctuations in climate may have had on warming. We do not know how much our climate could or will change in the future. We do not know how fast change will occur or even how some of our actions could impact it. For example, our useful efforts to reduce sulfur emissions may have actually increased warming because sulfate particles reflect sunlight, bouncing it back into space. And finally, no one can say with any certainty what constitutes a dangerous level of warming and, therefore, what level must be avoided."

President George W. Bush
The American Presidency Project
June 11, 2001
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"During the ice ages of the last million years global temperatures varied by about 10-12˚C, and until about 10,000 years ago global temperatures averaged over the ice ages were perhaps 4˚C lower than at the beginning of the 20th century. Global temperatures were higher than at the beginning of the 20th century by about 1.3˚C during the Holocene Maximum, which extended from somewhat over 7,000 years ago to about four thousand years ago. Since then variations are thought to have been within a 2˚C range; i.e., within a degree of the temperature at the beginning of the 20th century.

The most recent variations of significance have been the Medieval warm period from 1000 AD to 1400 AD, which was about 0.6-0.7˚C warmer than the beginning of the twentieth century, and the cooling between 1400 AD and 1900 AD. This cooling period included the Little Ice Age from 1500 AD to 1700 AD when temperatures were 0.6-0.7˚C cooler. From 1700 AD to 1900 AD global temperatures were about 0.3˚C lower than at the beginning of the twentieth century, with a rapid rise after the turn of the century. So since 1000 AD temperatures have varied over a range of about 1.5˚C, and over almost the last 10,000 years they have varied within a range of 2˚C. This can be considered the 'natural' variation over these periods. The reader should note at this point that the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere is believed to have been relatively constant before 1770, and has risen steadily since then. Therefore, none of the natural variation before 1770 was due to changes in carbon dioxide concentration."

Gerald E. Marsh
National Policy Analysis, Number 420
The National Center for Public Policy Research
July 2002
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101

"Let's be clear: the work of science has nothing whatever to do with consensus. Consensus is the business of politics. Science, on the contrary, requires only one investigator who happens to be right, which means that he or she has results that are verifiable by reference to the real world. In science consensus is irrelevant. What is relevant is reproducible results. The greatest scientists in history are great precisely because they broke with the consensus."

Michael Crichton
California Institute of Technology
January 17, 2003
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101

"... A review of the science suggests that uncertainty is so high as to raise a good prospect that mandatory green house gas reductions will produce little or no environmental benefit."

Kenneth P. Green
The Fraser Institute
2003
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101

"Responding to concerns that human activities are increasing concentrations of 'greenhouse gases' (such as carbon dioxide and methane) in the atmosphere, most nations of the world joined together in 1992 to sign the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The United States was one of the first nations to ratify this treaty. It included a legally non-binding, voluntary pledge that the major industrialized/developed nations would reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000, and that all nations would undertake voluntary actions to measure, report, and limit greenhouse gas emissions.

However, as scientific consensus grew that human activities are having a discernible impact on global climate systems, significantly contributing to a warming of the Earth that could result in major impacts such as sea level rise, changes in weather patterns, and health effects — and as it became apparent that major nations such as the United States and Japan would not meet the voluntary stabilization target by 2000 — parties to the treaty decided in 1995 that it would be necessary to enter into a legally binding, not voluntary, agreement. Negotiations began on a protocol to establish legally binding limitations or reductions in greenhouse gas emissions."

Susan R. Fletcher
Congressional Research Service
July 21, 2005
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"The global warming debate as presented by the media usually focuses on the increasing mean temperature of the earth, associated extreme weather events and future climate projections of increasing frequency of extreme weather events worldwide. In reality, the climate change issue is considerably more complex than an increase in the earth's mean temperature and in extreme weather events. Several recent studies have questioned many of the projections of climate change made by the IPCC reports and at present there is an emerging dissenting view of the global warming science which is at odds with the IPCC view of the cause and consequence of global warming. Our review suggests that the dissenting view offered by the skeptics or opponents of global warming appears substantially more credible than the supporting view put forth by the proponents of global warming. Further, the projections of future climate change over the next fifty to one hundred years is based on insufficiently verified climate models and are therefore not considered reliable at this point in time."

M.L. Khandekar
T.S. Murty
P. Chittibabu
Pure and Applied Geophysics, 162
2005
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101

"Global warming is real and human activity is the main cause. The consequences are mainly negative and headed toward catastrophic, unless we act. However, the good news is that we can meet this challenge. It is not too late, and we have everything we need to get started."

Al Gore
U.S. Senate Environment & Public Works Committee
March 21, 2007
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"Global warming may be a ‘crisis,’ even ‘the most pressing environmental problem of our time.’ ... Indeed, it may ultimately affect nearly everyone on the planet in some potentially adverse way, and it may be that governments have done too little to address it. It is not a problem, however, that has escaped the attention of policymakers in the Executive and Legislative Branches of our Government, who continue to consider regulatory, legislative, and treaty-based means of addressing global climate change.

Apparently dissatisfied with the pace of progress on this issue in the elected branches, petitioners have come to the courts claiming broad-ranging injury, and attempting to tie that injury to the Government's alleged failure to comply with a rather narrow statutory provision. I would reject these challenges as nonjusticiable. Such a conclusion involves no judgment on whether global warming exists, what causes it, or the extent of the problem. Nor does it render petitioners without recourse. This Court's standing jurisprudence simply recognizes that redress of grievances of the sort at issue here ‘is the function of Congress and the Chief Executive,’ not the federal courts.”

Chief Justice John G. Roberts
U.S. Supreme Court
April 2, 2007
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101

"Climate is always changing. The global surface temperature is never steady; it's always going up or down. Sea level is either rising or falling. Glaciers are either retreating or advancing."

Dr. John R. Christy
Center for the American Experiment
June 4, 2007
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"Climate cannot be adjusted in a predictable way. The initiatives sought to "control climate" have no dependable outcome, and the initiatives proposed to date would have such tiny impact that we can't even measure their potential impact."

Dr. John R. Christy
Center for the American Experiment
June 4, 2007
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"It is not possible to stop climate change, a natural phenomenon that has affected humanity through the ages. Geological, archaeological, oral and written histories all attest to the dramatic challenges posed to past societies from unanticipated changes in temperature, precipitation, winds and other climatic variables. We therefore need to equip nations to become resilient to the full range of these natural phenomena by promoting economic growth and wealth generation."

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"In brief, we have the new paradigm where simulation and programs have replaced theory and observation, where government largely determines the nature of scientific activity, and where the primary role of professional societies is the lobbying of the government for special advantage."

Dr. Richard Lindzen
Eco World
October 30, 2008
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"Moreover, the scientific evidence of how serious this climate crisis is becoming continues to amass week after week after week.

Let me share with you just a few recent examples:

-The Arctic is warming at an unprecedented rate. New research, which draws upon recently declassified data collected by U.S. nuclear submarines traveling under the arctic ice cap for the last 50 years, has given us, for the first time, a three-dimensional view of the ice cap, and researchers at the Naval Postgraduate School have told us that the entire Arctic ice cap may totally disappear in summer in as little as five years if nothing is done to curb emissions of greenhouse gas pollution. For most of the last 3 million years, it has covered an area the size of the lower 48 states. Almost half of the ice has already melted during the last 20 years. The dark ocean, once uncovered, absorbs 90 percent of the solar heat that used to bounce off the highly reflective ice. As a direct consequence, some of the vast amounts of frozen carbon in the permafrost surrounding the Arctic Ocean are beginning to be released as methane as the frozen tundra thaws, threatening a doubling of global warming pollution in the atmosphere."

Al Gore
Subcommittee on Energy and Environment Committee on Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives
April 24, 2009
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"Some of the most intriguing new research is in the area of extreme weather events and rainfall. A recent study by German scientists published in Climatic Change projects that extreme precipitation will increase significantly in regions that are already experiencing extreme rainfall. Man-made global warming has already increased the moisture content of the air worldwide, causing bigger downpours. Each additional degree of temperature increase causes another seven percent increase in moisture in the air, and even larger downpours when storm conditions trigger heavy rains and snows."

Al Gore
Subcommittee on Energy and Environment Committee on Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives
April 24, 2009
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"Ultimately, fears of manmade global warming, species extinction, and ocean acidification arise from scientists not fully understanding the checks and balances which exist in nature. Nature is not static, but causes its own, internally-generated changes – both in climate and in biological systems. The common view that nature is in some sort of 'delicate' balance is a romantic or religious opinion, and it is a view even held by most scientists. But balances in nature are always readjusting, either to internal forces or external forces. Nature is dynamic, not static. Just because a state of balance might be observed at any point in history does not mean that balance is in any way 'delicate'."

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"Claims that climate change is accelerating are bizarre. There is general support for the assertion that GATA [globally averaged temperature anomaly] has increased about 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit since the middle of the 19th century. The quality of the data is poor, though, and because the changes are small, it is easy to nudge such data a few tenths of a degree in any direction. Several of the emails from the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU) that have caused such a public ruckus dealt with how to do this so as to maximize apparent changes.

The general support for warming is based not so much on the quality of the data, but rather on the fact that there was a little ice age from about the 15th to the 19th century. Thus it is not surprising that temperatures should increase as we emerged from this episode. At the same time that we were emerging from the little ice age, the industrial era began, and this was accompanied by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases such as CO2, methane and nitrous oxide. CO2 is the most prominent of these, and it is again generally accepted that it has increased by about 30%."

Richard S. Lindzen
The Wall Street Journal
2009
30
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101

"The defining characteristic of a greenhouse gas is that it is relatively transparent to visible light from the sun but can absorb portions of thermal radiation. In general, the earth balances the incoming solar radiation by emitting thermal radiation, and the presence of greenhouse substances inhibits cooling by thermal radiation and leads to some warming.

That said, the main greenhouse substances in the earth's atmosphere are water vapor and high clouds. Let's refer to these as major greenhouse substances to distinguish them from the anthropogenic minor substances. Even a doubling of CO2 would only upset the original balance between incoming and outgoing radiation by about 2%. This is essentially what is called 'climate forcing.'

There is general agreement on the above findings. At this point there is no basis for alarm regardless of whether any relation between the observed warming and the observed increase in minor greenhouse gases can be established. Nevertheless, the most publicized claims of the U.N.'s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) deal exactly with whether any relation can be discerned. The failure of the attempts to link the two over the past 20 years bespeaks the weakness of any case for concern."

Richard S. Lindzen
The Wall Street Journal
2009
30
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101

"The main statement publicized after the last IPCC Scientific Assessment two years ago was that it was likely that most of the warming since 1957 (a point of anomalous cold) was due to man. This claim was based on the weak argument that the current models used by the IPCC couldn't reproduce the warming from about 1978 to 1998 without some forcing, and that the only forcing that they could think of was man. Even this argument assumes that these models adequately deal with natural internal variability—that is, such naturally occurring cycles as El Nino, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, etc.

Yet articles from major modeling centers acknowledged that the failure of these models to anticipate the absence of warming for the past dozen years was due to the failure of these models to account for this natural internal variability. Thus even the basis for the weak IPCC argument for anthropogenic climate change was shown to be false."

Richard S. Lindzen
The Wall Street Journal
November 30, 2009
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"Now, as the world's largest economy and as the world's second largest emitter, America bears our responsibility to address climate change, and we intend to meet that responsibility. That's why we've renewed our leadership within international climate change negotiations. That's why we've worked with other nations to phase out fossil fuel subsidies. That's why we've taken bold action at home by making historic investments in renewable energy, by putting our people to work increasing efficiency in our homes and buildings, and by pursuing comprehensive legislation to transform to a clean energy economy.

These mitigation actions are ambitious, and we are taking them not simply to meet global responsibilities. We are convinced, as some of you may be convinced, that changing the way we produce and use energy is essential to America's economic future, that it will create millions of new jobs, power new industries, keep us competitive, and spark new innovation. We're convinced, for our own self-interest, that the way we use energy, changing it to a more efficient fashion, is essential to our national security, because it helps to reduce our dependence on foreign oil and helps us deal with some of the dangers posed by climate change."

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"I was very surprised when I first saw the celebrated 'hockey stick curve,' in the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC. Both the little ice age and the medieval warm period were gone, and the newly revised temperature of the world since the year 1000 had suddenly become absolutely flat until the last hundred years when it shot up like the blade on a hockey stick. This was far from an obscure detail, and the hockey stick was trumpeted around the world as evidence that the end was near. We now know that the hockey stick has nothing to do with reality but was the result of incorrect handling of proxy temperature records and incorrect statistical analysis. There really was a little ice age and there really was a medieval warm period that was as warm or warmer than today. I bring up the hockey stick as a particularly clear example that the IPCC summaries for policy makers are not dispassionate statements of the facts of climate change. It is a shame, because many of the IPCC chapters are quite good."

William Happer
Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming, U.S. House of Representatives
May 20, 2010
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101

"Climate assessments like the IPCC have to date been written through a process in which IPCC-selected authors are given significant authority over the text, including judging their own work against work of their critics. This has led to biased information in the assessments and thus raises questions about a catastrophic view of climate change because the full range of evidence is not represented. Three examples follow.

1.A. Regarding the Hockey Stick of IPCC 2001 evidence now indicates, in my view, that an IPCC Lead Author working with a small cohort of scientists, misrepresented the temperature record of the past 1000 years by (a) promoting his own result as the best estimate, (b) neglecting studies that contradicted his, and (c) amputating another’s result so as to eliminate conflicting data and limit any serious attempt to expose the real uncertainties of these data.

1.B. In the IPCC 2007 report, Dr. Ross McKitrick presented evidence that indicated warming processes other than greenhouse gas warming affected the popular surface temperature data sets. The IPCC authors were themselves producers of these data sets, yet as 'final-say' authors they sat in judgment over this controversy, eventually denying McKitrick’s evidence with what turned out be (apparently) their own fabricated claim.

1.C. The EPA Finding misrepresented key evidence on the evaluation of climate models against real data. In IPCC-like fashion, the EPA gave authority to its hand-picked author team to respond to evidence which contradicted the Finding with assertions that were not based on reliable data or methods. The evidence shows the EPA overstated the agreement between models and observations when in fact there was disagreement."

Dr. John R. Christy
Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives
March 31, 2011
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101

"The global warming alarm is based on a chain of three linked elements, each depending on the preceding element and each element highly complex due to the number of variables and the types of relationships. It is much like a three-legged stool. Each leg involves much uncertainty.... The alarm requires:

1. a substantive long-term rise in global mean temperatures in the absence of regulations,
2. serious net harmful effects due to global warming, and
3. cost-effective regulations that would produce net beneficial effects versus alternatives such as doing nothing.

Effective policy-making requires scientific forecasts for all three elements. Without proper forecasts, there can be no sound basis for making policy decisions. Surprisingly, then, despite repeated appeals to global warming alarmists, we have been unable to find scientific forecasts for any of the three elements."

Professor J. Scott Armstrong
Kesten C. Green
Willie Soon
Subcommittee on Energy and Environment Committee on Science, Space and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives
March 31, 2011
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"The claim by alarmists that nearly all scientists agree with the dangerous manmade global warming forecasts is not a scientific way to validate forecasts. In addition, the alarmists are either misrepresenting the facts or they are unaware of the literature. International surveys of climate scientists from 27 countries, obtained by Bray and von Storch in 1996 and 2003, summarized by Bast and Taylor (2007), found that many scientists were skeptical about the predictive validity of climate models. Of more than 1,060 respondents, 35% agreed with the statement 'Climate models can accurately predict future climates,' while 47% percent disagreed."

Professor J. Scott Armstrong
Kesten C. Green
Willie Soon
Subcommittee on Energy and Environment Committee on Science, Space and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives
March 31, 2011
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"Global warming alarmists have used improper procedures and, most importantly, have violated the general scientific principles of objectivity and full disclosure. They also fail to correct errors or to cite relevant literature that reaches conclusion[s] that are unfavorable. They also have been deleting information from Wikipedia that is unfavorable to the alarmists’ viewpoint ... (e.g., my entry has been frequently revised by them). These departures from the scientific method are apparently intentional. Some alarmists claim that there is no need for them to follow scientific principles. For example, the late Stanford University biology professor Stephen Schneider said, 'each of us has to decide what is the right balance between being effective and being honest.' He also said 'we have to offer up scary scenarios'.... Interestingly, Schneider had been a leader in the 1970s movement to get the government to take action to prevent global cooling. ClimateGate also documented many violations of objectivity and full disclosure committed by some of the climate experts that were in one way or another associated with the IPCC.

The alarmists’ lack of interest in scientific forecasting procedures ... and the evidence from opinion polls ... have led us to conclude that global warming is a political movement in the U.S. and elsewhere.... It is a product of advocacy, rather than of the scientific testing of multiple hypotheses."

Professor J. Scott Armstrong
Kesten C. Green
Willie Soon
Subcommittee on Energy and Environment Committee on Science, Space and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives
March 31, 2011
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101

"The magnitude of the surface temperature response of the climate system to an imposed radiative energy imbalance remains just as uncertain today as it was decades ago .... Over 20 coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models tracked by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) produce a wide range of warming estimates in response to the infrared radiative forcing theoretically expected from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions ....

From a modeling standpoint, this lack of progress is evidence of the complexity of the myriad atmospheric processes that combine to determine the sign and magnitude of feedbacks. It is also due to our inability to quantify feedbacks in the real climate system, a contentious issue with a wide range of published feedback diagnoses ... and disagreements over the ability of existing methods to diagnose feedback ...."

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"Climate change is not simply a matter of slowly rising temperatures and seas; it affects all aspects of our way of life: extreme weather costs billions of dollars in property damage, insurance premiums, health and welfare spending, and lost productivity. Climate-related disasters—be they short and sudden, like cyclones, or long term and chronic, like drought—can set in motion a cascade of problems: loss of lives and livelihoods, environmental deterioration, strain on family relations and finances, emotional fallout, and the movement of large groups of people.

Increasingly recognised and reported is the mental health dimension of disaster. In recent years, a body of evidence has emerged showing just how insidious, pervasive, deep and—for some people and communities—profoundly dangerous the mental health impacts of climate change-related disasters can be."

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"Little more than a year ago, President Obama hailed Solyndra during a tour of the company, saying the company expected to hire 1,000 workers and make enough panels over the lifetime of its planned expanded facility that it would be like replacing eight coal-fired power plants. ...

Instead, Solyndra, which was launched in 2005, last week shed more than 900 full-time employees, leaving just a 'core group' of 113 employees, according to bankruptcy records filed Tuesday."

Jim McElhatton
The Washington Times
September 6, 2011
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101
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“The concern that polar bears will decline if the climate continues to warm is valid. However, the assertion that polar bears will become extinct unless immediate measures are taken to curb greenhouse gas emissions is irrational because it is inconsistent with the long-term persistence of polar bears through previous periods of warming and cooling; and because the IPCC climate model predictions 50 and 100 years into the future do not suggest a future with insufficient sea ice to support polar coordinated research and management programs developed and implemented under the International Agreement for the Conservation of Polar Bears and their Habitat.... During the last 30 years, it is generally agreed that polar bear numbers have increased as a response to improved conservation measures (harvest controls). Climate warming has occurred continuously during that period and consequent reductions in sea ice have been to the detriment of polar bear populations in at least two areas.... However, the assertion that polar bears as a species are in imminent danger of extinction or even threatened with extinction in the foreseeable future is both unproven and unlikely.”

Dr. Mitchell Taylor
Dr. Martha Dowsley
Science & Public Policy Institute
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101

"For many critical climate-sensitive sectors and indicators, matters have actually improved, especially during the last half century. ... Global agricultural productivity has never been greater, for instance.

An acre of cropland sustains about twice as many people today as it did in 1900, and it sustains them better. Based on nutrition and affordability of food, people have never been fed better or more cheaply. Between 1961 and 2001, global food supplies per person increased 24 percent, although global population almost doubled."

Indur M. Goklany
Lindenwood Economic Policy Lecture, Series 7
Institute for Study of Economics and the Environment
April 2005
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101

"Consider sea level rise. Mean sea level is rising at a rate of about 0.1 to 0.2 mm per year. ... While it is not known what fraction, if any, might be due to any human-caused warming, the IPCC’s Science Assessment notes that there was no detectable acceleration of sea level rise during the 20th century. ... Suffice it to say, so far, any accelerated sea level rise due to man-made warming is unlikely to have caused anything other than a minor impact on human or natural systems compared to other environmental stresses (such as development of coastlines, conversion of lands for aquaculture, drainage for other human land uses, sediment diversion due to dam construction, construction of seawalls, and subsidence owing to water, oil and gas extraction)."

Indur M. Goklany
Lindenwood Economic Policy Lecture, Series 7
Institute for Study of Economics and the Environment
April 2005
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101

"Agricultural demand for water – probably the largest threat to freshwater species – continues to increase. ... Meanwhile, threats to terrestrial biodiversity – primarily the conversion of habitat to agricultural uses ... – have not diminished. Forested area declined by 124 million hectares (306 million acres) in tropical and subtropical nations between 1990 and 2000. ... This decline, which occurred largely because increases in food demand outstripped increases in agricultural yields in those nations, is unrelated to global warming. During the same period, forest cover in the rest of the world (mainly wealthy nations) expanded by 28 million hectares (69 million acres) primarily because technology-based, high yield agriculture has reduced the demand for cropland in those countries."

Indur M. Goklany
Lindenwood Economic Policy Lecture, Series 7
Institute for Study of Economics and the Environment
April 2005
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101

"[James Lovelock] claimed in 2006 that 'before this century is over billions of us will die and the few breeding pairs of people that survive will be in the Arctic where the climate remains tolerable.'

But he has told MSNBC that he overstated the case and now acknowledges that 'we don't know what the climate is doing.'

'We thought we knew 20 years ago,' he said. 'That led to some alarmist books — mine included — because it looked clear-cut, but it hasn't happened.'

The 92-year-old Lovelock notes that 'the climate is doing its usual tricks' and concedes 'there's nothing much really happening yet' even though 'we were supposed to be halfway toward a frying world now.'

Lovelock hasn't fully changed course yet. MSNBC says he still believes climate change is occurring, though not as rapidly as he once thought.

'The world has not warmed up very much since the millennium. Twelve years is a reasonable time,' he said. Yet the temperature 'has stayed almost constant, whereas it should have been rising — carbon dioxide is rising, no question about that.'"

Investors.com
Investor's Business Daily
April 24, 2012
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Library Topic: Climate Change 101
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Notable quotes from leading experts and scientists on the climate change debate.

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Lehr and Bennett define and describe the "greenhouse effect," summarize temperature observations and report that average global temperature has increased roughly 0.6º C over the past 120 years, and described the methods used to measure temperature.

A compelling case against consensus-based science during a lecture at the California Institute of Technology. According to his site, it is "an historical approach detailing how over the last thirty years scientists have begun to intermingle scientific and political claims."

Danish researchers analysed ancient pieces of driftwood in north Greenland which they say is an accurate way to measure the extent of ancient ice loss.

The knowledge of past climate can improve our understanding of natural climate variability and also help address the question of whether modern climate change is unprecedented in a long-term context.

Next Tuesday, the Supreme Court hears American Electric Power v. Connecticut, a case that asks whether America's climate change policy can be designed and managed by the federal courts. The answer should be a resounding no.

"In the 1770s the Lunar Society of Birmingham, England, whose members were some of the leading thinkers of the era, regularly gathered to discuss their concerns about global climate change. They were interested in the scientific aspects of the change, but being entrepreneurs as well as thinkers, they also formulated plans to cope with it. Their basic strategy was to stop the cooling of the earth by dragging icebergs away from the Arctic regions to let them melt in the tropics."

"The Arctic will retain its power to amaze for a long time. Yet it is now changing beyond the usual regional and annual variations in sea-ice formation, glacier melt and so forth. The Arctic is clearly melting. Its floating ice cap is shrinking and thinning and its glaciers are retreating. By the end of this century, maybe much sooner, there will be frequent Arctic summers with almost no sea...

This article reports on a study finding that "that cattle grazed on the grasslands of China actually reduce another greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide."

"Not many years ago, a celebrated scientist predicted a global warming disaster awaited humanity. Today, that same scientist admits his warning was too 'alarmist.' It's time Al Gore turned his limousine around, too."

S. Fred Singer said in an interview with the National Association of Scholars (NAS) that 'the number of skeptical qualified scientists has been growing steadily; I would guess it is about 40% now.'

This article describes how climate research in the Arctic has been stalled the last few years. The reason for the research slowdown has been the increase in Arctic ice which has prohibited a number of ships from delivering supplies to the researchers.

FOR those who question whether global warming is really happening, it is necessary to believe that the instrumental temperature record is wrong. That is a bit easier than you might think.

"New evidence on the melting Pine Island Glacier (PIG), one of the melting Antarctic glaciers that some scientists feel may pose a threat to sea level increases, suggests that it is not climate change that is causing the glacier to melt."

"Late for a party? Miss a meeting? Forget to pay your rent? Blame climate change; everyone else is doing it. From an increase in severe acne to all societal collapses since the beginning of time, just about everything gone wrong in the world today can be attributed to climate change. Here’s a list of 100 storylines blaming climate change as the problem."

"The general public finds it very hard to understand how such strong disagreement can exist between two equally qualified persons on a scientific topic, a disagreement that is manifest also on the wider scene by the existence of equivalent groups of scientists who either support or oppose the views of the IPCC about dangerous anthropogenic (human-caused) global warming (DAGW).

In this...

Something's not quite right with the climate. Over the past few years, while global CO2 emissions have continued to swell, the global temperature rise has leveled off.

As with CO2, atmospheric concentrations of N2O have been boosted by human activity, mostly agricultural, by about 16% since the Industrial Revolution began.

"Of all of the world's chemical compounds, none has a worse reputation than carbon dioxide. Thanks to the single-minded demonization of this natural and essential atmospheric gas by advocates of government control of energy production, the conventional wisdom about carbon dioxide is that it is a dangerous pollutant. That's simply not the case. Contrary to what some would have us believe,...

We can only hope that world leaders will do nothing more than enjoy a pleasant bicycle ride around the charming streets of Copenhagen come December. For if they actually manage to wring out an agreement based on the current draft text of the Copenhagen climate-change treaty, the world is in for some nasty surprises. Draft text, you say? If you haven't heard about it, that's because none of our otherwise talkative political leaders have bothered to tell us what the drafters have already cobbled together for leaders to consider. And neither have the media.

A recent study authored by Mark Crowell of the Federal Emergency Management Agency estimates that in the U.S., climate change will increase the area subject to flooding by 45 percent in 2100. But to get this number, the study used estimates of sea-level rise that were more than 200 percent higher than the estimates of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Mr. McIntyre's critique isn't going to settle the broader global-warming debate. Indeed, he takes no strong position on whether fossil-fuel use is heating the planet or, if so, how to cope. He just says he has found a flaw in a main leg supporting the global-warming consensus.

It follows that skepticism about global warming, far from being antiscience, is in keeping with the standard scientific approach — and could one day fetch a skeptic a Nobel Prize.

According to a new report published by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, the livestock sector generates more greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalent – 18 percent – than transport.

"When Energy Secretary Stephen Chu announced a half-billion dollars in federal stimulus loans to solar panel maker Solyndra, he called the move part of an aggressive effort to put more Americans to work and end U.S. dependence on foreign oil. But nearly two years to the day later, the bankrupt Solyndra needs help just to keep it own electricity service from being shut off."

"President Obama and his congressional allies’ domestic climate change agenda—'cap and trade'—failed in the last Congress due to extensive opposition to its costly regulations and barriers to growth. Having failed to enact draconian climate change legislation domestically, however, President Obama has quietly shifted some of these efforts overseas by funneling millions of U.S. foreign aid dollars to left-wing causes in poor countries, whose populations largely live on less than $1 a day."

Scientists succinctly describe the faulty science/methodology used by the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), explain that climate change is a "natural phenomenon".

The solutions to global warming are not based on proven science and that the economic cost of implementing those solutions is likely to be massive.

It’s the very scariest claims — rapidly melting Himalayan glaciers threatening a billion people with flooding and then with drought, an increase in Katrina-scale disasters, and others – that are the ones on the shakiest ground.

You don’t have to be a rocket scientist or a climatologist to realize this has been a killer weather year. Snowmaggedons in the east; deadly super cell tornados pummeling towns across the Midwest and South; record spring floods throughout the Midwest and Gulf; droughts and deadly fires racing through tinder-dry towns in Texas. Now we're on track to have a possible record-breaking number of hurricanes; three cyclones now spinning in the Atlantic and Gulf could threaten our rain-soaked coasts and waterways.

Solyndra’s bankruptcy combines the political corruption of Detroit politics with FMR Governor Jennifer Granholm’s failed clean energy initiatives and packages it into a $535 million disaster that all taxpaying Americans have to pay for.

To help out, I’ve whipped up some commonly asked questions and their answers (below) on global warming to help you better understand the issues involved. As you will see, the science of global warming is far from ‘settled’. It is only because of the political and financial ramifications of global warming that so many people (mainly politicians and those who have vested interests) are trying to convince you otherwise.

Researchers have discovered that contrary to popular belief half of the ice flows in the Karakoram range of the mountains are actually growing rather than shrinking. It challenges claims made in a 2007 report by the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that the glaciers would be gone by 2035.

Is there a reason to be alarmed by the prospect of global warming? Consider that the measurement used, the globally averaged temperature anomaly (GATA), is always changing. Sometimes it goes up, sometimes down, and occasionally—such as for the last dozen years or so—it does little that can be discerned.

We recently learned of SEPP and wanted to know more about the organization and its leadership. Dr. Singer graciously agreed to an interview; below are his answers to our questions.

Carbon taxes are not likely to be politically feasible in the U.S. for addressing climate change in the short term, according to Robert Hahn and Peter Passell. The time is now ripe for the U.S. to consider adopting a cap and trade approach to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

With Earth Day about a month away, Americans tell Gallup they worry the most about several water-related risks and issues among nine major environmental issues. They worry least about global warming and loss of open spaces.

Scientists know more than ever before about how the Earth's climate is changing and what that will mean for people, habitats and wildlife across the planet.

"There is no statistically significant warming trend since November of 1996 in monthly surface temperature records compiled at the University of East Anglia. Do we now understand why there's been no change in fourteen and a half years?

If you read the news stories surrounding a recent paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by Boston University's Robert Kaufmann and...

This blog post discusses the raising of the CAFE standards to 35.5 mpg and agrees that the increase will help the environment somewhat. The author, however, states that the EPA's projection of the beneficial environmental effects seems high and that even if overall fuel costs decrease it will not have been because of the CAFE standards. He states that overall the...

"I’m reminded of this story when contemplating the climate change debate, where every so often a citizen of ordinary common sense will say, 'Gee, I think the sun has something to do with it.' Try saying this in 'polite company'—that is, in any assembly of certified climate experts—and watch the denunciation that comes down on you."

Chart or Graph

Two Canadian non-climate scientists, McKitrick and McIntyre, re-did the study using Mann's data and methods, and found dozens of errors, including two data series with exactly the same data for a number of years.

Changes in the sun's magnetism and in the reconstructed northern hemisphere's land temperature are highly correlated. The sun's magnetic changes are associated with changes in its total energy output.

At least three in four Americans surveyed in Gallup's 2011 Environment poll say they worry a great deal or a fair amount about contamination of soil and water by toxic waste....

Emissions of CO2, which accounts for the largest share of greenhouse gases, grew at an average annual rate of around 2½% between 1950 and 2000.

The excessive projections of the Stern Review derive from ignoring hard data on concentration trends, and instead using carbon cycle models to predict concentrations from projected emissions.

"This graph is based upon 18 previously published temperature proxies, and so provides the most robust estimate available to date."

The red bars show the global annual average near-surface temperature anomalies from 1850 to 2007. The error bars show the 95% uncertainty range on the annual averages.

The chart shows the global average sea-surface temperature from 1850 to 2008.

Here, we use the measurements from two deep boreholes on the Greenland Ice Sheet to reconstruct past temperatures.

Greenland borehole temperatures present temperatures consistent with the thesis of those on the climate change side of the debate. In this case, Greenland has been warmer in the past and has been much cooler in the past.

A new study of current data and analysis by Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature offers strong support to the existing temperature compilations.

Sea level curve for the last 5000 years for the Maldives.

MBH98, otherwise known as the "Mann Hockey Stick Graph," was published by the IPCC in 2001 as support for the idea that global warming is a unique problem confronting the 21st century world as a result of a rise in greenhouse gas emissions.

The chart shows the temperature histories of the northern and southern hemispheres from 1998 to 2010.

A recent study authored by Mark Crowell of the Federal Emergency Management Agency estimates that in the Even with its questionable temperature projections, the IPCC’s various projections of sea-level rise are between .18 and .59 meters (about 7 to 23 inches).

One of the most obvious conclusions from Figure 3 is that the satellite observations and climate models display markedly different time-dependent behaviors in their temperature versus radiation variations, especially over the oceans....

We then apply MBH98 methodology to the construction of a Northern Hemisphere average temperature index for the 1400-1980 period, using corrected and updated source data.

Mental health experts, practitioners and survivors of disasters, all attest to the emotional trauma and community damage from wilder weather, with a warning that worse will come without preventative climate action.

"For much of the last decade public opinion polls have shown that Americans have increasingly acknowledged the existence of climate change."

"The government climate scientists and the media often tell us about the direct effect of the CO2, but rarely admit that two-thirds of their projected temperature increases are due to amplification by feedbacks."

"The serious skeptical scientists have always agreed with the government climate scientists about the direct effect of CO2. The argument is entirely about the feedbacks."

Analysis Report White Paper

This comprehensive almanac details the state of many environmental concerns, including air pollution, water pollution, climate change, and energy.

"Historical data provide a baseline for judging how anomalous recent temperature changes are and for assessing the degree to which organisms are likely to be adversely affected by current or future warming. Climate histories are commonly reconstructed from a variety of sources, including ice cores, tree rings, and sediment."

This timely report addresses a big gap in the current public debate about climate change and how we should respond to it. There has been much legitimate concern about economic consequences and the risks to property, jobs and export earnings, but there has been a failure to discuss the consequences of climate change for human wellbeing and health.

"The purpose of this primer is to help the reader determine whether our understanding of the Earth’s climate is adequate to predict the long term effects of carbon dioxide released as a result of the continued burning of fossil fuels."

Admittedly, the contest over global warming is a challenge for the referee because it's a tag-team match, a real free-for-all. In one corner of the ring are Science and Reason. In the other corner: Poisonous Polluters and Right-wing Ideologues.

"The realistic physical functioning of the greenhouse effect is reviewed, and the role of dynamic transport and water vapor is identified. Model errors and uncertainties are quantitatively compared with the forcing due to doubling CO2, and they are shown to be too large for reliable model evaluations of climate sensitivities."

This report is divided into 4 chapters that address the impact climate change has on: health, death rates, on agriculture and forestry, and the political economy. The report also offers a series of policy recommendations.

The Committee found that the IPCC assessment process has been successful overall. However, the world has changed considerably since the creation of the IPCC, with major advances in climate science, heated controversy on some climate-related issues, and an increased focus of governments on the impacts and potential responses to changing climate.

"This collection of eight articles and reports on Al Gore’s film, 'An Inconvenient Truth,' .... includes the complete text of Justice Michael Burton’s October 2, 2007 British High Court decision, which found Gore’s film was “partisan” and “propaganda” and should not be shown to students without a guidance document pointing out Gore’s mistakes and exaggerations."

United States has relatively less to lose from climate change. In these circumstances, what does justice require the United States to do?

"This 880-page rebuttal of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)....provides an independent examination of the evidence available on the causes and consequences of climate change in the published, peer-reviewed literature examined without bias and selectivity."

"The Heartland Institute is pleased to partner once again with the Science and Environmental Policy Project and the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change on a report that makes a serious contribution to the global debate over the causes and consequences of climate change."

The following report summarizes results drawn from national level surveys in the United States and Canada that examine public perceptions regarding various aspects of climate change.

Future historians of efforts to address climate change will almost certainly look back on 2010 as the end of one era and the beginning of another.

Scientific debate continues regarding the extent to which human activities contribute to global warming and what the potential impact on the environment might be.

In this recently presented paper by Dr. Richard Lindzen, published here in its entirety, he describes the origins of global warming alarm, the political agenda of the alarmists, their intimidation tactics, and the reasons for their success.

The data set of proxies of past climate used in Mann, Bradley and Hughes (1998, "MBH98" hereafter) for the estimation of temperatures from 1400 to 1980 contains collation errors, unjustifiable truncation or extrapolation of source data, obsolete data, geographical location errors, incorrect calculation of principal components and other quality control defects. We detail these errors and defects.

"Recent weather events such as deadly heat waves and devastating floods have sparked popular interest in understanding the role of global warming in driving extreme weather. These events are part of a new pattern of more extreme weather across the globe, shaped in part by human-induced climate change.

"The popular notion that polar bears are declining or already expatriated worldwide has been initiated and perpetuated by environmental organizations and individuals who apparently believe that current subpopulation numbers and trends are an insufficient basis for an appropriate status determination."

Mann's "hockey stick" shaped temperature reconstruction uses an unusual methodology for collecting its data. But the graph misses many key features of past temperature variations, which makes it an implausible depiction of the truth.

"The only consensus over the threat of climate change that seems to exist these days is that there is no consensus. The much-heralded 2007 United Nations report on greenhouse gas emissions has served as a catalyst for lawmakers to burden traditional energy sources with regulations in favor of so-called clean energy."

Policy makers look to IPCC reports as the authoritative word on global warming and rely on them to make the difficult choices between the uncertain consequences of global warming and the certain economic harm that will come from minimizing human use of resources that emit greenhouse gases.

On the basis of current evidence, it is difficult to sustain the notion that climate change is the greatest threat to public health or the environment today. But what about the future?

"In the last two years, a remarkable amount of disturbing news has been published concerning global warming, largely concentrating on melting of polar ice, tropical storms and hurricanes, and mass extinctions."

Livestock’s long shadow helps raise the attention of the general public to the very substantial contribution of animal agriculture to climate change and air pollution, to land, soil and water degradation and to the reduction of biodiversity.

Climate change is mainly projected to add to existing problems, rather than create new ones. Of particular significance are four categories of hazards to human health and safety which have frequently been cited as major reasons for controlling greenhouse gas emissions.

The sensitivity of the climate system to an imposed radiative imbalance remains the largest source of uncertainty in projections of future anthropogenic climate change.

This online global warming primer offers one of the more balanced presentations of the complexity of the science.

A 50,000-year-long temperature history at GRIP and a 7000-year history at Dye 3; the Last Glacial Maximum, the Climatic Optimum, the Medieval Warmth, the Little Ice Age, and a warm period at 1930 A.D. are resolved.

This is an annotated bibliography of recent peer-reviewed papers that shed light on the various factors influencing earth's climate.

Greenhouse gas emissions, primarily caused by fossil fuels, are the main drivers of climate change. Through the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the international community agreed that global greenhouse gas emissions need to be halved relative to 1990 by 2050.

Dr. Christy gives a very understandable overview of climate study and its relation to global warming. A couple of takeaways: 1) Climate is always changing. 2) Climate cannot be adjusted in a predictable way.

"The object of this essay is not to say which of these seven theories is right or 'best,' but only to present them to the reader in a format that allows reflection and balanced consideration. Such dispassionate interest in the subject has been lacking in recent years, and the scientific debate has suffered for it."

The main point of this paper is simply to illustrate why serious and persistent doubts remain concerning the danger of anthropogenic global warming despite the frequent claims that ‘the science is settled.’

This booklet was written for busy state elected officials who need to stay well-informed about the energy debate. It covers 10 of the most important energy issues facing the country, with each section ending with recommended actions and suggested readings. A thorough bibliography appears at the end of the booklet.

"Boston University's Robert Kaufmann and colleagues recently published a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences examining the causes of the recent dearth of 'global warming.' They concluded that it's simply natural variability, augmented by increasing sulfate emissions from dramatically growing coal consumption by China."

"We check the main predictions of the climate models against the best and latest data. Fortunately the climate models got all their major predictions wrong. Why? Every serious skeptical scientist has been consistently saying essentially the same thing for over 20 years, yet most people have never heard the message."

Two extensive critiques of the Stern Review by various economic and climate change experts.

I am a strong supporter of a clean environment. We need to be vigilant to keep our land, air and waters free of real pollution, particulates, heavy metals, pathogens, but carbon dioxide (CO2) is not one of these pollutants.

Understanding Climate Change aims to provide a comprehensive but easily readable summary of the current state of climate change science. It is intended to be more informative and thorough than popular news stories, but not as technical as research reports such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report.

"This paper aims to describe the evolution of US greenhouse gas emissions and of US domestic climate policy to date, in particular the essentials of the current leading legislative initiative – the Lieberman-Warner 'Climate Security Act' – and discuss some issues of the policy design."

Abstract: "The hockey stick debate is about two things. At a technical level it concerns a well-known study that characterized the state of the Earth's climate over the past thousand years and seemed to prove a recent and unprecedented global warming. I will explain how the study got the results it did, examine some key flaws in the methodology and explain why the...

Understanding the concept of geologic time and some basic science can give a new perspective on climate change and the energy future.

This analysis provides an excellent overview of a variety of issues surrounding climate change and concludes the best way for the world to "combat" climate change is, "...by reducing present-day vulnerabilities to climate-sensitive problems that could be exacerbated by climate change rather than through overly aggressive GHG reductions."

Video/Podcast/Media

Daniel Botkin talks with EconTalk host Russ Roberts about how we think about our role as humans in the natural world, the dynamic nature of environmental reality and how we react to global warming.

In this podcast, Patrick J. Michaels declares that there is such a thing as climate change, but it is not as bad as some make it out to be. Michaels declares that those who take this position are often severely condemned by both global warming proponents and opponents.

In this podcast, Patrick J. Michaels discusses the 2009 G20 summit and the worldwide struggle over climate change and emission issues.

John R. Christy one of a handful of scientists to actually build "data sets of climate variation and change from scratch" talks about how finding "dramatic changes in climate systems" is really quite difficult.

"We typically think of climate change as the biggest environmental issue we face today. But maybe it's not? In this presentation, Jonathan Foley shows how agriculture and land use are maybe a bigger culprit in the global environment, and could grow even larger as we look to feed over 9 billion people in the future."

A collection of videos from the Fourth International Conference on Climate Change, May 2010, held in Chicago, IL.

"Sallie Baliunas is an astrophysicist formerly affiliated with the Mount Wilson Institute. Her awards include the Newton Lacey Pierce Prize by the American Astronomical Society, the Petr Beckman Award for Scientific Freedom and the Bok Prize from Harvard University. In 1991 Discover magazine profiled her as one of America's outstanding women scientists."

This video is a critique of catastrophic man-made global warming theory, based on presentation slides used in a series of public presentations and debates in late 2009 and early 2010. The author is Warren Meyer, author of the web site climate-skeptic.com.

In this clip, Al Gore ... [compares] skeptics of climate change to racists during the Civil Rights Movement. Gore was sitting down for an interview with Alex Bogusky of the Climate Reality Project, and suggested that young people today whose parents do not believe in climate change are asking the same questions now that race-conscious young people in the 60s asked their parents.

"This video exposes yet another of Obama's radical leftist appointments, EPA head Lisa Jackson. From indoctrination of our youth through the Boy's and Girl's Clubs of America, to fear mongering in a speech to LULAC, to playing the race card in front of BIG (Blacks in Government), Jackson covers all the Environmental Justice bases."

The EPA's role is to develop regulations based on science from laws passed by Congress to protect human health and the environment.

The UN is worried that climate change may aggravate threats to international peace and security.

A dedicated, unabashed, free market capitalist, T. J. Rodgers takes a businessman's and engineer's view of global warming.

This film by the documentary-maker Martin Durkin presents the arguments of scientists and commentators who don't believe that CO2 produced by human activity is the main cause of climate change.

"Competitive Enterprise Institute Senior Fellow Marlo Lewis explains the truth about global warming in his film Policy Peril: Why Global Warming Policies Are More Dangerous Than Global Warming Itself. The movie includes cameos from Heritage’s Ben Lieberman and David Kreuzter and is full of talking points to debunk the common catastrophic global warming stories you always hear."

Primary Document

Popularly known as the Waxman-Markey bill, this document sought "To create clean energy jobs, achieve energy independence, reduce global warming pollution and transition to a clean energy economy." Highly contentious, the bill failed to pass before the end of the 111th Congress.

We address in this opinion the question whether the plaintiffs (several States, the city of New York, and three private land trusts) can maintain federal common law public nuisance claims against carbon-dioxide emitters (four private power companies and the federal Tennessee Valley Authority). As relief, the plaintiffs ask for a decree setting carbon-dioxide emissions for each defendant at an initial cap, to be further reduced annually. The Clean Air Act and the Environmental Protection Agency action the Act authorizes, we hold, displace the claims the plaintiffs seek to pursue

It is an honor for me to join this distinguished group of leaders from nations around the world. We come here in Copenhagen because climate change poses a grave and growing danger to our people. All of you would not be here unless you, like me, were convinced that this danger is real. This is not fiction, it is science. Unchecked, climate change will pose unacceptable risks to our security, our economies, and our planet. This much we know.

This bill would require the state board to adopt regulations to require the reporting and verification of statewide greenhouse gas emissions and to monitor and enforce compliance with this program, as specified.

As Congress and the Administration considered new legislation to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to climate change over the last year and a half (a process that has now stalled), the Environmental Protection Agency simultaneously began to exercise its existing authority under the Clean Air Act to set standards for GHG emissions. The Administration has made clear that its preference would be for Congress to address the climate issue through new legislation. Nevertheless, it is moving forward on several fronts to define how the Clean Air Act will be used and to promulgate regulations.

The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer.

Produced by the English Parliament, this piece of climate change legislation seeks, among other things, "to set a target for the year 2050 for the reduction of targeted greenhouse gas emissions; to provide for a system of carbon budgeting; to establish a Committee on Climate Change; [and] to confer powers to establish trading schemes for the purpose of limiting greenhouse gas emissions or encouraging activities that reduce such emissions or remove greenhouse gas from the atmosphere...."

"On October 5, 2009, President Obama signed an Executive Order directing the Task Force to develop a report with recommendations for how the Federal Government can strengthen policies and programs to better prepare the Nation to adapt to the impacts of climate change."

The legitimate questions that have been raised about the processes used to generate climate change science and policy have thus far been cast aside. The reluctance to engage in conversations with people who have doubts or question the veracity of climate science is at the heart of the wrong doing that undermines trust in climate change science.

"The key question is: how much warming will there be, and will the warming, and any other effects of the CO2, be good or bad for humanity? I, and many other scientists, think the warming will be small compared [with] the natural fluctuations in the earth’s temperature, and that the warming and increased CO2 will be good for mankind."

Commonly known as the Lieberman-Warner bill, this document sought "To direct the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to establish a program to decrease emissions of greenhouse gases, and for other purposes." The bill, however, failed to pass the U.S. House and Senate.

"One could say, Mr. President, that a spectre is haunting Copenhagen, to paraphrase Karl Marx, the great Karl Marx, a spectre is haunting the streets of Copenhagen, and I think that spectre walks silently through this room, walking around among us, through the halls, out below, it rises, this spectre is a terrible spectre almost nobody wants to mention it: Capitalism is the spectre, almost...

The recommendations that this distinguished organization makes can have a profound effect on the world's environmental and economic policy. By being here today, I hope to underscore my country's and my own personal concern about your work, about environmental stewardship, and to reaffirm our commitment to finding responsible solutions. It's both an honor and a pleasure to be the first American President to speak to this organization, as its work takes shape.

"The issue of climate change respects no border. Its effects cannot be reined in by an army nor advanced by any ideology. Climate change, with its potential to impact every corner of the world, is an issue that must be addressed by the world."

This report summarizes the science of climate change and the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future.

Negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) were completed December 11, 1997, committing the industrialized nations to specified, legally binding reductions in emissions of six “greenhouse gases.”

The main activity of the IPCC is to provide at regular intervals Assessment Reports of the state of knowledge on climate change. The latest one is "Climate Change 2007", the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released this statement following the discovery that some of their climate change assessments were based on faulty research. In their original report, the IPCC argued that climate change could melt glaciers in prominent mountainous regions. This statement declares that the report's "conclusion is robust, appropriate, and entirely consistent with the underlying science and the broader IPCC assessment."

"The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012."

An open letter from U.S. Congress to Dr. Michael Mann, asking him to answer questions about criticisms of his scientific method and inconsistencies in his responses to those criticisms, so that the Congress can clarify their picture of what exactly his results mean.

For centuries Americans have drawn strength and inspiration from the beauty of our country. It would be a neglectful generation indeed, indifferent alike to the judgment of history and the command of principle, which failed to preserve and extend such a heritage for its descendants.

Here the Supreme Court ruled that the Environmental Protection Agency must develop automobile carbon dioxide (C02) emissions standards because the relationships of CO2 and other greenhouse gasses to global warming pose "a risk..."

"By any measure, the world is on course to overshoot the safety limits that scientists have set for carbon emissions. A record 30.6 gigatonnes of carbon was pumped into the atmosphere last year. This means that, despite a recession in the rich world, and a lot of highfalutin talk about climate change, emissions are running close to the business-as-usual scenario offered by the...

"The validity of the manmade global warming alarm requires the support of scientific forecasts of (1) a substantive long-term rise in global mean temperatures in the absence of regulations, (2) serious net harmful effects due to global warming, and (3) cost-effective regulations that would produce net beneficial effects versus alternatives such as doing nothing."

"By Repowering America with a transition to a clean energy economy and ending our dangerous over-reliance on carbon-based fuels, which is the common thread running through all three of these crises, this bill will simultaneously address the climate crisis, the economic crisis, and the national security threats that stem from our dependence on foreign oil."

Christy describes the continuing uncertainty in the scientific modeling and interpretation of those models used to predict/explain climate change and the perverse effects of many of the proposed solutions to slow/end climate change.

What is the origin of popular perceptions? I hope it will become clear that the designation, 'skeptic,' simply confuses an issue where popular perceptions are based in significant measure on misuse of language as well as misunderstanding of science.

Gore testifies about what he believes is "... a planetary emergency - a crisis that threatens the survival of our civilization and the habitability of the Earth."

This document provides a copy of some weather observations from 1922. According to the document, individuals were beginning to see signs of melting Arctic ice due to warming trends. The observations in this article suggest that warming and cooling cycles have been a part of recent climatic history.

The aim [of this document] is to give a new as yet unnamed U.N. body the power to directly intervene in the financial, economic, tax and environmental affairs of all the nations that sign the Copenhagen treaty.

This is an issue which has been of great concern to me for a long time. When I decided to seek this office back in 1991, I did it after having spent more than a decade as a Governor deeply frustrated by what seemed to me too often to be inevitable, persistent, aggravating conflicts between the impulse to promote economic opportunity for the people that I represented and the clear obligation, the moral obligation, on all of us to try to preserve this planet that we all share.

"In the following I will provide some general remarks on the shortcomings of the assessment process as I’ve experienced it, then provide three examples of how the process led to inaccurate information provided to policymakers, followed by a comment on temperature records and I will close with some concluding remarks."

Books

Link