Quotes on Health Impacts of Climate Change

"The air that is the very essence of life has become a carrier for disease and for early death. Between 1930 and 1960 the number of deaths from one respiratory disease alone increased by 800 percent.

But air pollution is also a drain on our resources. In the United States alone it accounts for more than $11 billion in economic damages. This amounts to nearly $30 a year for every man, woman, and child in our Nation. And yet our expenditure on air pollution control is less than 20 cents a year per citizen.

We made a hopeful beginning toward solving this problem with the Clean Air Act of 1963."

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"The Congress finds—

(1) that the predominant part of the Nation’s population is located in its rapidly expanding metropolitan and other urban areas, which generally cross the boundary lines of local jurisdictions and often extend into two or more States;

(2) that the growth in the amount and complexity of air pollution brought about by urbanization, industrial development, and the increasing use of motor vehicles, has resulted in mounting dangers to the public health and welfare, including injury to agricultural crops and livestock, damage to and the deterioration of property, and hazards to air and ground transportation;

(3) that air pollution prevention (that is, the reduction or elimination, through any measures, of the amount of pollutants produced or created at the source) and air pollution control at its source is the primary responsibility of States and local governments; and

(4) that Federal financial assistance and leadership is essential for the development of cooperative Federal, State, regional, and local programs to prevent and control air pollution."

December 31, 1970
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"Other studies of the influence of climate change on human health have examined a rather narrow set of potential medical areas. The underlying research has generally referred to Lyme disease, malaria, dengue and yellow fevers, and encephalitis, none of which is a major health problem in the United States. The IPCC (1995, p. SPM-10) has asserted that the 'geographical zone of potential malaria transmission in response to world temperature increases at the upper part of the IPCC-projected range (3-5deg.C by 2100) would increase from approximately 45% of the world population to approximately 60% by the latter half of the next century.' On the other hand, the WHO notes that

until recent times, endemic malaria was widespread in Europe and parts of North American and that yellow fever occasionally caused epidemics in Portugal, Spain and the USA. Stringent control measures ... and certain changes in life-style following economic progress, have led to the eradication of malaria and yellow fever in these areas. ...

Concern about tropical and insect-spread diseases seems overblown. Inhabitants of Singapore, which lies almost on the equator, and of Hong Kong and Hawaii, which are also in the tropics, enjoy life spans as long as or longer than those of people living in Western Europe, Japan, and North America. Both Singapore and Hong Kong are free of malaria, but that mosquito-spread disease ravages nearby regions. Modern sanitation in advanced countries prevents the spread of many scourges found in hot climates. Such low tech and relatively cheap devices as window screens can slow the spread of insect vectors."

Thomas Gale Moore
Hoover Institution, Stanford University
May 30, 1996
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"The vast majority of the world's climate scientists have concluded that if the countries of the world do not work together to cut the emission of greenhouse gases, then temperatures will rise and will disrupt the climate. In fact, most scientists say the process has already begun. Disruptive weather events are increasing. Disease-bearing insects are moving to areas that used to be too cold for them. Average temperatures are rising. Glacial formations are receding."

President William J. Clinton
The American Presidency Project
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"The following statements summarize the position of the American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) on dealing with the potential health effects of projected climate change.

• Nearly all of the potential adverse health effects of projected climate change are significant, real-life problems that have long persisted under stable climatic conditions. Bolstering efforts to eliminate or alleviate such problems would both decrease the current incidence of premature death and facilitate dealing with the health risks of any climate change that might occur.

• Policies that weaken economies tend to weaken public health programs. Thus, it is likely that implementation of such policies would (a) increase the risk of premature death and (b) exacerbate any adverse health effects of future climate change."

Sidney Shindell M.D., LL.B.
Jack Raso M.S., R.D.
American Council on Science and Health
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"In summary, a warmer climate should improve health and extend life, at least for Americans and probably for Europeans, the Japanese, and people living in high latitudes. High death rates in the tropics appear to be more a function of poverty than of climate. Thus global warming is likely to prove positive for human health."

Thomas Gale Moore
Climate of Fear: Why We Shouldn't Worry about Global Warming
Cato Institute
March 25, 1998
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"Since climate change will have only a very small effect on the world’s health, why are so many rushing to impose onerous taxes and controls on U.S. industry? The carbon tax that the administration suggested and then withdrew would have cost Americans about $180 billion per year. If preventing a rise in disease in poor countries were the purpose of restricting emissions, then it would be much more effective to deal with that problem directly than to put constraints on our energy use. Spending only one-tenth of that amount to provide clean water or mosquito netting would contribute far more to the world’s health than attempting to reduce greenhouse gas emissions."

Thomas Gale Moore
Hoover Institution
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"The burden of disease has also lifted considerably. The annual number of deaths among people under age 50 fell from 21 million in 1955 to about 10 million in 1997. Deaths under 50 are expected to decline further, to 5 million, by 2025. This is an extraordinary improvement in human health since world population in 1955 was 2.8 billion and is now over 6 billion."

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"Neither epidemiology nor toxicology supports the idea that exposures to environmental levels of synthetic industrial chemicals are important as a cause of human cancer.... Epidemiological studies have identified several factors that are likely to have a major effect on lowering cancer rates: reduction of smoking, improving diet (e.g., increased consumption of fruits and vegetables), hormonal factors, and control of infections.... Although some epidemiological studies find an association between cancer and low levels of industrial pollutants, the associations are usually weak, the results are usually conflicting, and the studies do not correct for potentially large confounding factors such as diet.... Moreover, exposures to synthetic pollutants are very low and rarely seem toxicologically plausible as a causal factor, particularly when compared to the background of natural chemicals that are rodent carcinogens.... Even assuming that worst-case risk estimates for synthetic pollutants are true risks, the proportion of cancer that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) could prevent by regulation would be tiny...."

Thomas H. Sloan
Lois Swirsky Gold
Bruce N. Ames
Human and Environmental Risk Assessment: Theory and Practice
John Wiley & Sons
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"It is impossible, and in fact is irresponsible, for any climatologist to claim that any given weather event could not have happened if not for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Yes, 2003 was a very warm summer in Europe, but the fact that similar conditions occurred there in the very distant past pretty much debunks the 'global warming' hypothesis."

Patrick J. Michaels
Cato Institute
November 29, 2005
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"In the early 1990s, malaria topped the list of dangerous impacts of global warming; the disease would move to temperate regions as temperatures increased. This prediction ignored the fact that malaria was once an important cause of morbidity and mortality throughout most of the US and Europe, even in a period that climatologists call the ‘Little Ice Age’. In the US, as in western Europe, prevalence declined in the 19th century as a result of multiple changes in agriculture and lifestyle that affected the abundance of mosquitoes, their contact with people, and the availability of anti-malarial drugs. Nevertheless, the most catastrophic epidemic on record anywhere in the world occurred in the Soviet Union in the 1920s, with a peak incidence of 13 million cases per year, and 600,000 deaths. Transmission was high in many parts of Siberia, and there were 30,000 cases and 10,000 deaths in Archangel, close to the Arctic circle. The disease persisted in many parts of Europe until the advent of DDT. Clearly, temperature was not a limiting factor in its distribution or prevalence."

Paul Reiter
United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation
April 25, 2006
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"The British government's Stern Review, released with much fanfare in late October, predicted increases in temperature will produce up to 80 million new cases of malaria.

This claim relies on a single article that described a simplistic mathematical model that blithely ignored the most obvious reality: Most Africans already live in hot places where they get as many as 300 infective bites every year, though just one is enough. The glass is already full.

The weather is largely out of our control, but malaria is not. While billions are spent on climate change prevention and by advocacy groups, malaria remains rampant, killing millions, making life a misery for hundreds of millions — like the children of Karatina where the epidemic could easily be eliminated cheaply."

Paul Reiter
International Herald Tribune
International Policy Network
January 11, 2007
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"Worldwide, life expectancy has more than doubled, from 31 years in 1900 to 67 years today. India's and China's infant mortalities exceeded 190 per 1,000 births in the early 1950s; today they are 62 and 26, respectively. In the developing world, the proportion of the population suffering from chronic hunger declined from 37 percent to 17 percent between 1970 and 2001 despite a 83 percent increase in population. Globally average annual incomes in real dollars have tripled since 1950. Consequently, the proportion of the planet's developing-world population living in absolute poverty has halved since 1981, from 40 percent to 20 percent. Child labor in low income countries declined from 30 percent to 18 percent between 1960 and 2003."

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"...[N]umerous studies from around the world show a connection between cold weather and respiratory diseases.

A Norwegian study found 47 percent more respiratory deaths in winter than in summer. In London, a 1º C drop in mean temperature (below 5º C) was associated with a 10.5 percent increase in all respiratory disease consultations. In Brazil, the adult death rate changes due to a 1º C cooling were twice as great as death rate changes due to a similar warming--and 2.8 times greater among the elderly.

In the United States, temperature variability is the most important element of climate change related to respiratory deaths, though the reasons for this do not seem to be clear to physicians."

The Heartland Institute
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"Globally, mortality and mortality rates [due to extreme weather events] have declined by 95 percent or more since the 1920s. The largest improvements came from declines in mortality due to droughts and floods, which apparently were responsible for 93 percent of all deaths caused by extreme events during the 20th Century. For windstorms, which, at 6 percent, contributed most of the remaining fatalities, mortality rates are also lower today but there are no clear trends for mortality. Cumulatively, the declines more than compensated for increases due to the 2003 heat wave."

Indur M. Goklany
Civil Society Coalition on Climate Change
November 2007
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"With climate change, the United States would expect to see an increase in the severity, duration, and frequency of extreme heat waves. Heat causes a range of health effects, from mild (heat cramps, heat exhaustion) to severe (such as heat stroke, which can be fatal). Certain populations are especially vulnerable to these health effects, including the elderly, those with certain underlying medical conditions, those who are socially isolated, and those without air conditioning. Midwestern and northeastern cities are at greatest risk, as heat-related illness and death appear to be related to exposure to temperatures much hotter than those to which the population is accustomed."

Howard Frumkin MD, DrPH
Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming, United States House of Representatives
April 9, 2008
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"Climate-related disease risks occur throughout the US, and many are expected to be exacerbated by climate change. Some health benefits could result, including reduced cold-related mortality and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Southeastern U.S. However, the net health effects have been assessed to be adverse."

Jonathan A. Patz MD, MPH
U.S. House of Representatives
April 9, 2008
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"No nation, however large or small, wealthy or poor, can escape the impact of climate change. Rising sea levels threaten every coastline. More powerful storms and floods threaten every continent. More frequent droughts and crop failures breed hunger and conflict in places where hunger and conflict already thrive. On shrinking islands, families are already being forced to flee their homes as climate refugees. The security and stability of each nation and all peoples—our prosperity, our health, and our safety—are in jeopardy, and the time we have to reverse this tide is running out."

President Barack Obama
The American Presidency Project
September 22, 2009
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"Rising carbon dioxide levels have been observed to increase the growth and toxicity of some plants that cause health problems. Climate change has caused an earlier onset of the spring pollen season in the United States. ... It is reasonable to conclude that allergies caused by pollen have also experienced associated changes in seasonality. ... Several laboratory studies suggest that increasing carbon dioxide concentrations and temperatures increase ragweed pollen production and prolong the ragweed pollen season. ...

Poison ivy growth and toxicity is also greatly increased by carbon dioxide, with plants growing larger and more allergenic. These increases exceed those of most beneficial plants. For example, poison ivy vines grow twice as much per year in air with a doubled preindustrial carbon dioxide concentration as they do in unaltered air; this is nearly five times the increase reported for tree species in other analyses. ... Recent and projected increases in carbon dioxide also have been shown to stimulate the growth of stinging nettle and leafy spurge, two weeds that cause rashes when they come into contact with human skin."

Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States
U.S. Global Change Research Program
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"Heart attacks and strokes rise as temperatures fall. This is because when confronted with the cold, the blood vessels in the skin contract to conserve heat by preventing blood from flowing to the surface. The composition of the blood also changes.

The heart has to work harder to pump blood through narrower vessels, while the change in concentration means it is more liable to clot, with all the ensuing health problems.

The British Heart Foundation says: 'There is growing evidence to suggest that heart attacks are linked with extreme weather conditions, especially cold weather.'"

Clare Murphy
Policy Documents
The Heartland Institute
January 6, 2010
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"Scientists attribute as many as 30,000 deaths a year to cold temperatures. More are attributed to poor health and the flu, both of which seem to flourish in the colder regions of the world. As temperatures rise across the globe, it is expected that this number will significantly decrease. Deaths that have been attributed directly or indirectly to cold weather will become less and less common. History shows us that during warming periods, typically found after ice ages, populations flourished. It is likely that our population will flourish during this period of Global Warming as well.

Another sad fact of cold weather is ice and snow, both of which contribute to fatal car accidents each year. In fact, research shows that between the years 1975 and 2000 there were 1.4 million fatal crashes that could be attributed to bad weather conditions. Global Warming may eventually mean that snow and ice will no longer pose a threat to drivers. As a result, there will be fewer traffic accidents and less fatalities."

GK Health
April 21, 2010
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"Perhaps the greatest health benefit of Global Warming is the effect it has had worldwide on our ability to produce food. Scientist[s] believe that the world is actually 'greener' since Global Warming was first recognized. The excess carbon dioxide in our atmosphere works to our advantage in the case of food production. The extra Co2 is utilized by plants as a type of 'fertilizer' making the plants healthier and more productive. Longer growing seasons and better weather mean that more fresh fruits and vegetables are being produced. The result may very well be a decrease in the price of these commodities. What it really means is that more people will have better access to healthier foods. While it is true that continued Global Warming is likely to change the world, geographically speaking, many of these changes would be for the better. Consider the health benefits [of] the ability to produce fresh fruits and vegetables in [a] place like Greenland or Siberia."

GK Health
April 21, 2010
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"One of the justifications for combating global warming is that higher temperatures will threaten human health and could cause sweeping epidemics of infectious diseases and ultimately more deaths. But don’t forget a warmer world has benefits as well as costs, as does a cooler one. The empirical data shows that mortality rates rise in colder months, and this is evident across latitudes and well-recognized by the medical community."

Nicolas Loris
The Foundry
The Heritage Foundation
May 19, 2010
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"Federal mortality statistics show 800 more people die every day in December, January, and February than occurs on an average day during the rest of the year. The winter months kill 72,000 more U.S. citizens than the spring-summer-autumn average.

The three months with the lowest mortality are the hot-weather summer months of June, July, and August."

James M. Taylor
Policy Documents
The Heartland Institute
July 29, 2010
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"Climate change is a public health issue and is one of the greatest threats to human health. Scientists from across the globe have stated in the strongest possible terms that the climate is changing and that human activity is to blame. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has unequivocally concluded that greenhouse gas is causing global warming and the United States is a leading contributor of greenhouse gases globally. This average increase in the Earth’s temperature (referred to as global warming) is causing regional weather changes such as more extreme weather events and increases and decreases in temperature and rainfall. These regional weather changes may create environmental conditions (floods, heat waves, drought, poor air quality) that lead to poor health outcomes such as heat stroke, injury, malnutrition, respiratory illness and asthma, and infectious (vector- and rodent- borne) diseases."

Lynn Goldman MD, MS, MPH
Subcommittee on Energy and Power
February 9, 2011
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"Climate change is already dramatically affecting the health of people around the world especially in the developing world. According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 166,000 deaths and about 5.5 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, a measure of overall disease burden) were attributable to climate change in 2000. These numbers are staggering, but they should not be surprising: climate change influences the living environment on the most fundamental level, which means it affects the basic biological functions critical to life. It impacts the quality of air breathed, availability of food and drinking water, and the potential for disease to spread.

These impacts are different in different parts of the world — and equally troubling, they are disproportionately burdensome for the world’s more vulnerable populations. Children, the elderly, the poor and those with chronic and other health conditions are considered the most vulnerable to the negative health impacts of climate change because they are most susceptible to extreme weather events like heat waves, drought, intense storms and floods. They are also least likely to have the resources to prepare or respond. This unequal burden seems especially unjust given that these populations are the least likely to contribute substantially to climate change. Any strategies for managing climate change impacts must take the unique challenges and needs of vulnerable populations into account."

Lynn Goldman MD, MS, MPH
Subcommittee on Energy and Power
February 9, 2011
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"To put the public health impact of extreme weather events into context, cumulatively they now contribute only 0.07% to global mortality. Mortality from extreme weather events has declined even as all-cause mortality has increased, indicating that humanity is coping better with extreme weather events than it is with far more important health and safety problems.

The decreases in the numbers of deaths and death rates reflect a remarkable improvement in society’s adaptive capacity, likely due to greater wealth and better technology, enabled in part by use of hydrocarbon fuels. Imposing additional restrictions on the use of hydrocarbon fuels may slow the rate of improvement of this adaptive capacity and thereby worsen any negative impact of climate change. At the very least, the potential for such an adverse outcome should be weighed against any putative benefit arising from such restrictions."

Indur M. Goklany
Julian Morris
Policy Study, 393
Reason Foundation
September 2011
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"According to calculations by Lombard Street Research in the UK, any global treaty that would stabilise the climate at today's temperatures would cost a total of £8 trillion--45% of the world's current annual economic output, causing permanent economic depression.

Economic growth is an absolute pre-requisite for improved health. One study has shown that if economic growth in the developing world had been a mere 1.5% higher in the 1980s, at least 500,000 child deaths could have been prevented.

This is because much of the disease burden in developing countries is a direct result of poverty. Diarrhoea, chest infections from burning wood and dung indoors, water-borne infections and malnutrition are the biggest killers of children, killing millions regardless of any changes in the climate."

Philip Stevens
International Policy Network
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"The relationship between climate and disease is less marked than is often claimed. Margaret Chan, the head of WHO, on Monday stated that rising temperatures could lead to the re-emergence of malaria in the USA. But this fails to take into account the vast range of human and ecological factors that determine the incidence of this disease.

According to Professor Paul Reiter, an expert on vector-borne diseases and former contributor to the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 'there is no evidence that climate has played any role in the burgeoning tragedy of this disease.' Reiter points out that malaria was endemic throughout northern Europe until the second half of the 19th century, when changes in agricultural practices, improved drainage and better human dwellings led to a spontaneous decline of the disease as mosquitoes had fewer opportunities to bite people--even while records show temperatures rose in this period."

Philip Stevens
International Policy Network
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"During the dark ages (from 750 to 1100 AD) temperatures were so low that the Nile froze and ice floated in the Adriatic Sea. During the Middle Ages, temperatures rose, so much so that Greenland became suitable for agriculture and England became a wine producing region. Yet all the while the transmission of malaria and other vector-borne diseases continued.

As temperatures plummeted during the dark ages and during the little ice age of the 16th century, malaria continued to flourish in Europe. It disappeared only when Europeans became wealthy enough to afford medication, decent housing and the drainage of swamps for agricultural land. Studies have found also that the increased incidence of malaria in Kenya's western highlands correlates not with climate changes, but mostly with population movements, failing drugs and a lack of adequate malaria control."

Richard Tren
Business Day (South Africa)
International Policy Network
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Quotes on the health impacts of global warming and climate change.

Commentary or Blog Post

There is no scientific consensus concerning global warming. The climate change predictions are based on computer models that have not been validated and are far from perfect.

the expression ‘climate change will be worse for the poor’ amounts to a much stronger argument for creating wealth than it does for the abolition of climate change.

'Global warming' is rapidly increasing Northern Hemisphere temperatures, as it does every summer, but alarmists in the media are doing their best to make it seem like summer heat waves never occurred before.

For 12 years, my colleagues and I have protested against the unsubstantiated claims that climate change is causing the disease to spread. We have failed miserably.

If the predictions of the climate modelers based on the hypothesis of anthropogenic warming were true, rising temperatures in the 21 century would save millions of lives and improve human health directly.

One such favourite claim states that climate change will lead to the rapid spread of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, yellow fever and dengue, to new areas. This claim, however, slithers through scientific fact.

"Late for a party? Miss a meeting? Forget to pay your rent? Blame climate change; everyone else is doing it. From an increase in severe acne to all societal collapses since the beginning of time, just about everything gone wrong in the world today can be attributed to climate change. Here’s a list of 100 storylines blaming climate change as the problem."

The truth of the matter is, Global Warming will positively effect the health of many people around the world.

Heat-related deaths, especially in cities have steadily decline for the past fifty years despite urban warming resulting from the "heat island effect." Humans' improved ability to adapt through new technology (air-conditioning) and an abundance of energy.

Dr. Reiter was interviewed March 23 by Greg Murphy.

Whatever you think about the health and environmental impacts of global warming, it will certainly be influenced by the way you view human progress, and the current state of humanity in the world.

Physicians need to be aware of how current climate variability can affect health outcomes.

The following article, based on a chapter of Unstoppable Global Warming, provides the scientific evidence regarding warming temperatures and human health.

As climate talks wrap up in Bali, we heard from the World Health Organization that rising temperatures are also making humans less healthy as malaria spreads northwards and heatwaves become more common.

This article describes the many ways in which cold weather is more detrimental to human health than warm weather.

Climate change is already affecting the nation's public health, according to a new multi-agency report released by the Obama administration.

Studies of the relationship between air pollution and health have generated an active literature claiming that air pollution and automobile traffic cause heart attack deaths, low birthweights, spontaneous abortions, acute respiratory illness, and chronic social stress in rats.

This article puts climate change's possible health impacts in perspective. For instance, "in the year 2000, there were a total of 55.8 million deaths worldwide. Climate change may be responsible for less than 0.3% of all deaths globally.

Climate change cannot explain the growth of malaria in the highlands of East Africa, say researchers.

Indur Goklany's talk establishes the long-standing fact that cold kills more than warmth and that global warming policies cost more lives than global warming itself.

The reality is that humanity has never had it so well, and that as nations grow wealthier and develop newer and more efficient technologies, they improve their environment as well.

The Lancet report details at length how warmer temperatures will lead to so-called tropical diseases such as malaria moving northwards and to higher altitudes. But this ignores the vast range of human and ecological factors that surround disease.

Over the past year the media have reported that one possible effect of global warming will be the expansion of tropical, communicable diseases borne by rodents or parasites into the United States.

"Meteorological and ecological shifts driven by climate change are creating a slow and often unpredictable bloom of novel public health challenges across the United States. The American Public Health Association has declared climate change 'one of the most serious public health threats facing our nation,' although the precise nature of that threat remains uncertain."

Want proof of our adaptation to heat? Two extremely hot cities, Tampa and Phoenix, have virtually no heat-related mortality, despite sporting the oldest populations in our study.

This week committees in both the Senate and House of Representatives will be holding hearings on whether global warming will cause future harm to human health.

Following is a compilation of excess deaths during the winter months (compared to what occurs on average during the rest of the year) in a number of developed countries in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

Chart or Graph

Mortality due to floods in 2005 may be higher than in other recent years because of floods related to hurricanes that year.

The corresponding declines for death rates (comparing their peaks with the most recent 10-year period) were 80 percent for floods, 75 percent for lightning, 95 percent for hurricanes and 92 percent for tornadoes.

Good childhood nutrition is reflected in taller adults. Icelanders must have suffered from lack of food during the Mini Ice Age: their average stature fell by two inches (see chart 9).

Interrelationships between major types of global environmental change, including climate change.

Despite any warming that may have occurred, both deaths and death rates have not increased over this period. If anything, they might have declined over this period, during which all-cause mortality increased by 28 percent.

Figure 2 shows the average annual deaths and death rates from all weather- and climate-related extreme events for each decade starting in 1900 through the eleven-year period from 2000–2010.

Figure 1 shows the average annual number of events recorded in the EM-DAT database for each 'decade' since the 1900s.

Figure 4 shows that deaths and death rates for floods, the second most important category and responsible for a third of the deaths recorded in EM-DAT for the entire period, crested in the 1930s.

Death and death rates due to extreme weather events: global and US trends, 1900-2006.

During much of the 20th Century, the deadliest extreme events were droughts, followed by floods and windstorms.

While extreme weather-related events garnish plenty of attention worldwide because of their episodic and telegenic nature, their contribution to the global mortality burden is relatively minor.

The pie chart shows the distribution of deaths for 11 hazard categories as a percent of the total 19,958 deaths due to these hazards from 1970 to 2004.

The warmest periods—the Neolithic and Bronze Ages and England in the thirteenth century—enjoyed the longest life spans of the entire record (see chart 8).

The decline of malaria in all these countries cannot be attributed to climate change because it occurred during a warming phase when temperatures were already much higher than in the Little Ice Age.

Malaria in the United States and Canada in 1882.The dark shaded areas are regions where the disease was probably endemic.

Increases in heat-related deaths are projected in cities around the nation, especially under higher emissions scenarios.

Figure 5 shows that deaths and death rates from storms have declined by 55.8% and 75.3%, respectively, after peaking in the 1970s.

Mental health experts, practitioners and survivors of disasters, all attest to the emotional trauma and community damage from wilder weather, with a warning that worse will come without preventative climate action.

In 2008, there were 108,500 'excess' deaths during the 122 days in the cold months (January to March and December; it was a leap year).

The bulk of the weather-related deaths were caused by extreme cold. In rank of importance, these were followed by extreme heat, floods, lightning, tornados, and hurricanes.

Analysis Report White Paper

This timely report addresses a big gap in the current public debate about climate change and how we should respond to it. There has been much legitimate concern about economic consequences and the risks to property, jobs and export earnings, but there has been a failure to discuss the consequences of climate change for human wellbeing and health.

How sensitive are intensively-managed and lightly-impacted ecosystems to different levels of climate change?

This volume seeks to describe the context and process of global climate change, its actual or likely impacts on health, and how human societies should respond, via both adaptation strategies to lessen impacts and collective action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Global warming's impact on disease is often thought to be most acute in relation to mosquito-borne diseases, since warming has the potential to expand the range of mosquitoes. But this study concludes warming will have little impact on mosquito-borne diseases.

Temperature is a causal factor in disease, but small temperature changes are unlikely to have a significant impact on the spread of disease.

A public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies, academia, the private sector.

Exposure to waterborne and foodborne pathogens can occur via drinking water ..., seafood ... or fresh produce .... Weather influences the transport and dissemination of these microbial agents via rainfall and runoff and the survival and/or growth through such factors as temperature.

An article examining death and death rates in correlation to global warming and extreme weather.

We study the economic impacts of climate-change-induced change in human health, viz. cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, diarrhoea, malaria, dengue fever and schistosomiasis.

The idea that CO2-induced global warming is responsible for increases in a host of human maladies has become entrenched in popular culture.

The history of the disease in England underscores the role of factors other than temperature in malaria transmission.

This technical report reviews the nature of the global problem and anticipated health effects on children and supports the recommendations in the accompanying policy statement on climate change and children's health.

In this report the American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) reviews recent assertions concerning the potential adverse health effects of projected human-induced global climate change.

A somewhat warmer climate would probably reduce mortality in the United States and provide Americans with valuable benefits.

While some predict global warming will increase deaths caused by extreme temperatures, this study predicts that, in Europe, "the direct effect of the moderate warming predicted in the next 50 years would be to reduce, at least briefly, both winter mortality and total mortality."

"The only consensus over the threat of climate change that seems to exist these days is that there is no consensus. The much-heralded 2007 United Nations report on greenhouse gas emissions has served as a catalyst for lawmakers to burden traditional energy sources with regulations in favor of so-called clean energy."

Supports the claim by the World Health Organization that global climate change costs the world about 150,000 lives a year, mostly in the form of increased cases of severe weather and disease.

Would cutting greenhouse gas emissions, as the Kyoto Protocol requires, improve the health of Americans? This essay will show that the answer to all those questions is a resounding no.

One of the conundrums facing the world, which should be addressed in the course of developing climate change policies, is whether, and, if so, for how long, would a richer-but-warmer world be better for human and environmental well-being than a poorer-but-cooler world.

On the basis of current evidence, it is difficult to sustain the notion that climate change is the greatest threat to public health or the environment today. But what about the future?

Climate change is mainly projected to add to existing problems, rather than create new ones. Of particular significance are four categories of hazards to human health and safety which have frequently been cited as major reasons for controlling greenhouse gas emissions.

"In this report, we have outlined the major threats—both direct and indirect—to global health from climate change...."

"There is no convincing evidence that synthetic chemical pollutants are important as a cause of human cancer."

Climate change presents a unique challenge for economics: it is the greatest example of market failure we have ever seen.

Most of the causes of premature death have nothing to do with climate.

This study concludes that the possibility of negative health outcomes due to global warming, including health impacts from heat, extreme weather, air pollution, water and food-born diseases, and vector and rodent-born diseases, remains too uncertain to make any "definitive statement."

This study examines whether deaths and death rates due to weather-related extreme events have increased globally since the beginning of the 20th century.


Given at the Fourth International Conference on Climate Change, this talk presents a variety of information on the relationship between global warming and various health risks.

Climate change is a public health issue. ... There is growing scientific consensus that climate change may cause extreme weather events that increase the potential for disease and premature death.

Lomborg discusses the issues of hurricanes as a result of global warming. He says that there will be more damage from hurricanes because more people are living with more stuff closer to the ocean.

Climate change has multiple direct and indirect consequences for human health. Heat waves affect health directly and are projected to take an increasing toll in developed and underdeveloped nations.

Bjorn Lomborg kicked things off with an engrossing 30-minute presentation about man-made climate change and the best ways to prioritize and solve global problems ranging from water shortages to poverty to malaria.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Lisa Jackson spoke to reporters about greenhouse gas emissions before the upcoming United Nations conference on global climate change.

This film by the documentary-maker Martin Durkin presents the arguments of scientists and commentators who don't believe that CO2 produced by human activity is the main cause of climate change.

"Competitive Enterprise Institute Senior Fellow Marlo Lewis explains the truth about global warming in his film Policy Peril: Why Global Warming Policies Are More Dangerous Than Global Warming Itself. The movie includes cameos from Heritage’s Ben Lieberman and David Kreuzter and is full of talking points to debunk the common catastrophic global warming stories you always hear."

Primary Document

This report is organized around 11 broad human health categories likely to be affected by climate change.

The question of how well the 1990 Amendments have succeeded in protecting public health and the environment from air pollution is very important.

That so many of us are here today is a recognition that the threat from climate change is serious, it is urgent, and it is growing.

In so many ways the problem of climate change reflects the new realities of the new century.

The Clean Air Act is the law that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving the nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer.

Scientific evidence supports the view that the earth’s climate is changing. CDC considers climate change a serious public health concern.

This report summarizes the science of climate change and the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future.

Throughout the world, the prevalence of some diseases and other threats to human health depend largely on local climate.

A brief overview of the likely health effects of increased temperatures and extreme weather events is provided here. Links to additional information about these and other potential health effects − such as air quality, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, water- and food-borne diseases and mental health − appear below.

On Wednesday, April 9, Chairman Edward J. Markey (D-Mass.) and the Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming addressed the warming planet, and how climate change affects the health of her citizens.

Unlike health threats caused by a particular toxin or disease pathogen, there are many ways that climate change can lead to potentially harmful health effects.

The main activity of the IPCC is to provide at regular intervals Assessment Reports of the state of knowledge on climate change. The latest one is "Climate Change 2007", the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report.

I can say with confidence that the conclusions across assessments have been consistent finding that, on balance, the health risks of climate change outweigh the benefits.

"The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012."

We have now reached the point where our factories and our automobiles, our furnaces and our municipal dumps are spewing more than 150 million tons of pollutants annually into the air that we breathe-almost one-half million tons a day.

In this brief presentation I restrict my comments to malaria, and emphasise four points: 1. Malaria is not an exclusively tropical disease

Here the Supreme Court ruled that the Environmental Protection Agency must develop automobile carbon dioxide (C02) emissions standards because the relationships of CO2 and other greenhouse gasses to global warming pose "a risk..."

"The natural history of mosquito-borne diseases is complex, and the interplay of climate, ecology, mosquito biology, and many other factors defies simplistic analysis. The recent resurgence of many of these diseases is a major cause for concern, but it is facile to attribute this resurgence to climate change, or to use models based on temperature to 'predict' future prevalence. In my opinion,...

In October 2007, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a new policy statement and technical report, entitled, 'Global Climate Change and Children’s Health.' ... This statement sounded a warning to pediatricians and policymakers alike.

For 40 years, the Clean Air Act has safeguarded the health of all Americans, including our most vulnerable.

"Mr. Chairman, many of today’s witnesses will speak of the specific implications of climate change that they perceive as most important for human health. Doubtless malaria will top the menu, but we fear ignorance and disinformation may as well."