Quotes on What is Education?

"Now for the exercise of any faculty or art a previous training and habituation are required; clearly therefore for the practice of virtue. And since the whole city has one end, it is manifest that education should be one and the same for all, and that it should be public, and not private,—not as at present, when every one looks after his own children separately, and gives them separate instruction of the sort which he thinks best; the training in things which are of common interest should be the same for all. Neither must we suppose that any one of the citizens belongs to himself, for they all belong to the state, and are each of them a part of the state, and the care of each part is inseparable from the care of the whole. In this particular the Lacedaemonians are to be praised, for they take the greatest pains about their children, and make education the business of the state."

Aristotle
320 B.C.
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Library Topic: What is Education?

"Some have thought that boys, as long as they are under seven years of age, should not be set to learn, because that is the earliest age that can understand what is taught, and endure the labor of learning. Of which opinion a great many writers say that Hesiod was, at least such writers as lived before Aristophanes the grammarian, for he was the first to deny that the work Hypothekai, in which this opinion is found, was the work of that poet.

But other writers likewise, among whom is Erastothenes, have given the same advice. Those, however, advise better, who, like Chrysippus, think that no part of a child's life should be exempt from tuition; for Chrysippus, though he has allowed three years to the nurses, yet is of the opinion that the minds of children may be imbued with excellent instruction even by them.

And why should not that age be under the influence of learning, which is now confessedly subject to moral influence? I am not indeed ignorant that, during the whole time of which I am speaking, scarcely as much can be done as one year may afterwards accomplish, yet those who are of the opinion which I have mentioned, appear with regard to this part of life to have spared not so much the learners as the teachers.

What else, after they are able to speak, will children do better, for they must do something? Or why should we despise the gain, how little soever it be, previous to the age of seven years? For certainly, small as may be the proficiency which an earlier age exhibits, the child will yet learn something greater during the very year in which he would have been learning something less."

Marcus Fabius Quintilianus
The Library of Original Sources, Vol. III: The Roman World
Internet Ancient History Sourcebook
c. 90 C.E.
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"And here, to speak summarily, what we are wont to say of arts and sciences may be said also concerning virtue: that there is a concurrence of three things requisite to the completing them in practice---which are nature, reason and use. Now by reason here I would be understood to mean learning; and by use, exercise. Now the principles come from instruction, the practice comes from exercise, and perfection from all three combined. And accordingly as either of the three is deficient, virtue must needs be defective. For if virtue is not improved by instruction, it is blind; if instruction is not assisted by nature, it is maimed; and if exercise fail of the assistance of both, it is imperfect as to the attainment of its end."

Plutarch
The Library of Original Sources, Vol. III: The Roman World
Internet Ancient History Sourcebook
c. 110 C.E.
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"But we must most of all exercise and keep in constant employment the memory of children; for that is, as it were, the storehouse of all learning. Wherefore the mythologists have made Mnemosyne, or Memory, the mother of the Muses, plainly intimating thereby that nothing does so beget or nourish learning as memory. Wherefore we must employ it to both those purposes, whether the children be naturally apt or backward to remember. For so shall we both strengthen it in those to whom Nature in this respect has been bountiful, and supply that to others wherein she has been deficient. And as the former sort of boys will thereby come to excel others, so will the latter sort excel themselves. …

Neither, therefore, let the parents be ignorant of this, that the exercising of memory in the schools does not only give the greatest assistance towards the attainment of learning, but also to all the actions of life. For the remembrance of things past affords us examples in our consults about things to come."

Plutarch
The Library of Original Sources, Vol. III: The Roman World
Internet Ancient History Sourcebook
c. 110 C.E.
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Library Topic: What is Education?

"Children, in their first days, have the greater benefit of good mothers, not only because they suck their milk, but in a sort, their manners also, by being continually with them, and receiving their first impressions from them. But afterwards, when they come to riper years, good fathers are more beloveful for their forming in virtue and good manners, by their greater wisdom and authority: and ofttimes also, by correcting the fruits of their mother's indulgence, by their severity."

John Robinson
The Works of John Robinson, vol. 1
1851 (original writing c. 1600)
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"I do not like those distinctions between schools and academies which result in giving different and separate education to the richer and to the poorer nobility. All, being equal under the constitution of the state, ought to be educated together and in the same fashion; and if it is impossible to set up an absolutely free system of public education, the cost must at least be set at a level the poor can afford to pay. Would it not be possible to provide in each school a certain number of free scholarships, that is to say, supported at state expense, of the sort known in France as bursaries? These scholarships, given to the children of poor gentlemen who have deserved well of the country, given not as an act of charity but as a reward for the merit of the father, would thus become honourable, and might produce a double advantage well worth considering. To accomplish this, nominations should not be arbitrary, but made by a form of selection of which I shall speak hereafter. Those who have been chosen would be called children of the state, and distinguished by some honorific insignia which would give them precedence over other children of their own age, including even the children of magnates.

In every school a gymnasium, or place for physical exercise, should be established for the children. This much-neglected provision is, in my opinion, the most important part of education, not only for the purpose of forming robust and healthy physiques, but even more for moral purposes, which are either neglected or else sought only through a mass of vain and pedantic precepts which are simply a waste of breath. I can never sufficiently repeat that good education ought to be negative. Prevent vices from arising, and you will have done enough for virtue. In a good system of public education, the way to accomplish this is simplicity itself: it is to keep children always on the alert, not by boring studies of which they understand nothing and which they hate simply because they are forced to sit still; but by exercises which give them pleasure by satisfying the need of their growing bodies for movement, and which in other ways will be enjoyable.

They should not be allowed to play alone as their fancy dictates, but all together and in public, so that there will always be a common goal toward which they all aspire, and which will excite competition and emulation. Parents who prefer domestic education, and have their children brought up under their own eyes, ought nevertheless to send them to these exercises. Their instruction may be domestic and private, but their games ought always to be public and common to all; for here it is not only a question of keeping them busy, of giving them a robust constitution, of making them agile and muscular, but also of accustoming them at an early age to rules, to equality, to fraternity, to competition, to living under the eyes of their fellow-citizens and to desiring public approbation. Therefore the prizes and rewards of the victors should not be distributed arbitrarily by the games-coaches or by the school-officials, but by the acclamation and judgment of the spectators; and you can be sure that these judgments will always be just, above all if care is taken to make the games attractive to the public, by presenting them with some ceremony and with an eye to spectacular effect. Then we may assume that all worthy people and all good patriots will consider it a duty and a pleasure to attend."

Jean-Jacques Rousseau
April 1772
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Library Topic: What is Education?

"A part of my occupation, and by no means the least pleasing, is the direction of the studies of such young men as ask it. They place themselves in the neighboring village and have the use of my library and counsel, and make a part of my society. In advising the course of their reading, I endeavor to keep their attention fixed on the main objects of all science, the freedom and happiness of man. So that coming to bear a share in the councils and government of their country, they will keep ever in view the sole objects of all legitimate government."

Thomas Jefferson
The Jefferson Cyclopoedia
1810
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"Education is more indispensable, and must be more general, under a free government than any other. In a monarchy, the few who are likely to govern must have some education, but the common people must be kept in ignorance; in an aristocracy, the nobles should be educated, but here it is even more necessary that the common people should be ignorant; but in a free government knowledge must be general, and ought to be universal."

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"It still remains unrecognised, that to bring a child into existence without a fair prospect of being able, not only to provide food for its body, but instruction and training for its mind, is a moral crime, both against the unfortunate offspring and against society; and that if the parent does not fulfil this obligation, the State ought to see it fulfilled, at the charge, as far as possible, of the parent."

John Stuart Mill
Library of Economics and Liberty
1869
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"I believe that all education proceeds by the participation of the individual in the social consciousness of the race. This process begins unconsciously almost at birth, and is continually shaping the individual's powers, saturating his consciousness, forming his habits, training his ideas, and arousing his feelings and emotions. Through this unconscious education the individual gradually comes to share in the intellectual and moral resources which humanity has succeeded in getting together. He becomes an inheritor of the funded capital of civilization. The most formal and technical education in the world cannot safely depart from this general process. It can only organize it; or differentiate it in some particular direction."

John Dewey
The School Journal, Vol. LIV, No. 3
January 16, 1897
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Library Topic: What is Education?

"Place the lives of children in their formative years, despite the convictions of their parents, under the intimate control of experts appointed by the state, force them then to attend schools where the higher aspirations of humanity are crushed out, and where the mind is filled with the materialism of the day, and it is difficult to see how even the remnants of liberty can subsist. Such a tyranny, supported as it is by a perverse technique used as the instrument in destroying human souls, is certainly far more dangerous than the crude tyrannies of the past, which despite their weapons of fire and sword permitted thought at least to be free.”

Dr. J. Gresham Machen
Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
1923, 2009
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Library Topic: What is Education?

"When a man fits himself in America to teach history or chemistry, it scarcely seems to occur to him, or rather it scarcely seems to occur to those who prescribe his studies for him, that he ought to study history or chemistry. Instead, he studies merely 'education'. The study of education seems to be regarded as absolving a teacher from obtaining any knowledge of the subjects that he is undertaking to teach. And the pupils are being told, in effect, that the simple storing up in the mind of facts concerning the universe and human life is a drudgery from which they have now been emancipated; they are being told, in other words, that the great discovery has been made in modern times that it is possible to learn how to 'think' with a completely empty mind. It cannot be said that the result is impressive. In fact the untrammeled operation of the effects of this great American pedagogic discovery is placing American schools far behind the schools of the rest of the civilized world."

Dr. J. Gresham Machen
PCA Historical Center
August 1933
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Library Topic: What is Education?

"In a word, we may reasonably hope for the virtual abolition of education when I’m as good as you has fully had its way. All incentives to learn and all penalties for not learning will vanish. The few who might want to learn will be prevented; who are they to overtop their fellows? And anyway the teachers—or should I say, nurses?—will  be far too busy reassuring the dunces and patting them on the back to waste any time on real teaching. We shall no longer have to plan and toil to spread imperturbable conceit and incurable ignorance among men. The little vermin themselves will do it for us.

Of course this would not follow unless all education became state education. But it will. That is part of the same movement. Penal taxes, designed for that purpose, are liquidating the Middle Class, the class who were prepared to save and spend and make sacrifices in order to have their children privately educated. The removal of this class, besides linking up with the abolition of education, is, fortunately, an inevitable effect of the spirit that says I’m as good as you. This was, after all, the social group which gave to the humans the overwhelming majority of their scientists, physicians, philosophers, theologians, poets, artists, composers, architects, jurists, and administrators. If ever there was a bunch of tall stalks that needed their tops knocked off, it was surely they."

C. S. Lewis
HarperCollins
1942
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Library Topic: What is Education?

"…the sole true end of education is simply this: to teach men how to learn for themselves; and whatever instruction fails to do this is effort spent in vain."

Dorothy Leigh Sayers
Escondido Tutorial Service
1947
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Library Topic: What is Education?

"…I ought to say why I think it necessary, in these days, to go back to a discipline which we had discarded. The truth is that for the last three hundred years or so we have been living upon our educational capital. The post-Renaissance world, bewildered and excited by the profusion of new 'subjects' offered to it, broke away from the old discipline (which had, indeed, become sadly dull and stereotyped in its practical application) and imagined that henceforward it could, as it were, disport itself happily in its new and extended Quadrivium without passing through the Trivium. But the Scholastic tradition, though broken and maimed, still lingered in the public schools and universities: Milton, however much he protested against it, was formed by it--the debate of the Fallen Angels and the disputation of Abdiel with Satan have the tool-marks of the Schools upon them, and might, incidentally, profitably figure as set passages for our Dialectical studies. Right down to the nineteenth century, our public affairs were mostly managed, and our books and journals were for the most part written, by people brought up in homes, and trained in places, where that tradition was still alive in the memory and almost in the blood. Just so, many people today who are atheist or agnostic in religion, are governed in their conduct by a code of Christian ethics which is so rooted that it never occurs to them to question it.

But one cannot live on capital forever. However firmly a tradition is rooted, if it is never watered, though it dies hard, yet in the end it dies. And today a great number--perhaps the majority--of the men and women who handle our affairs, write our books and our newspapers, carry out our research, present our plays and our films, speak from our platforms and pulpits--yes, and who educate our young people--have never, even in a lingering traditional memory, undergone the Scholastic discipline. Less and less do the children who come to be educated bring any of that tradition with them. We have lost the tools of learning--the axe and the wedge, the hammer and the saw, the chisel and the plane-- that were so adaptable to all tasks. Instead of them, we have merely a set of complicated jigs, each of which will do but one task and no more, and in using which eye and hand receive no training, so that no man ever sees the work as a whole or 'looks to the end of the work.'"

Dorothy Leigh Sayers
Escondido Tutorial Service
1947
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Library Topic: What is Education?

"To my mind, education has a two-fold function in society. On the one hand it should discipline the mind for sustained and persistent speculation. On the other hand it should integrate human life around central, focusing ideals. It is a tragedy that the latter is often neglected in our educational system."

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project
The Estate of Martin Luther King, Jr.
January 1947
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Library Topic: What is Education?

"Education should equip us with the power to think effectively and objectively. To think is one of the hardest things in the world, and to think objectively is still harder. Yet this is the job of education. Education should cause us to rise beyond the horizon of legions of half truth, prejudices and propaganda. Education should enable us to 'weigh and consider,' to discern the true from the false, the relevant from the irrelevant, and the real from the unreal. The first function of education, therefore, is to teach man to think intensively. But this is not the whole of education. If education stops here it can be the most dangerous force in society. Some of the greatest criminals in society have been men {who} possessed the power of concentration and reason, but they had no morals. Perhaps the most dangerous periods in civilization have been those periods when there was no moral foundation in society."

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project
The Estate of Martin Luther King, Jr.
January 1947
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Library Topic: What is Education?

"For the exercise of his writing, let him sometimes translate Latin into English: but the learning of Latin being nothing but the learning of words, a very unpleasant business both to young and old, join as much other real knowledge with it as you can, beginning still with that which lies most obvious to the senses; such as is the knowledge of minerals, plants, and animals, and particularly timber and fruit-trees, their parts and ways of propagation, wherein a great deal may be taught a child, which will not be useless to the man: but more especially geography, astronomy, and anatomy. But, whatever you are teaching him, have a care still, that you do not clog him with too much at once; or make any thing his business but downright virtue, or reprove him for any thing but vice, or some apparent tendency to it."

John Locke
The Works of John Locke in Nine Volumes
The Online Library of Liberty
1960
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Library Topic: What is Education?

"There are many disputes within the education field, but none so vituperative as the reading and math wars—the battles over how best to teach children to read and to solve arithmetic problems. These aren’t just disputes over instructional techniques; they are expressions of two distinct and opposing understandings of children’s nature and how children learn. The two sides are best viewed as expressions of romantic versus classical orientations to education. For instance, the 'whole language,' progressive approach to teaching children how to read is romantic in impulse. It equates the natural process of learning an oral first language with the very unnatural process of learning alphabetic writing. The emotive weight in progressivist ideas is on naturalness. The natural is spiritually nourishing; the artificial, deadening. In the 1920s, William Kilpatrick and other romantic progressivists were already advocating the 'whole language' method for many of the same reasons advanced today.

The classical approach, by contrast, declines to assume that the natural method is always the best method. In teaching reading, the classicist is quite willing to accept linguistic scholarship that discloses that the alphabet is an artificial device for encoding the sounds of language. Learn the 40-odd sounds of the English language and their corresponding letter combinations, and you can sound out almost any word. Yet adherents of 'whole language' regard phonics as an unnatural approach that, by divorcing sounds and letters from meaning and context, fails to give children a real appreciation for reading."

E. D. Hirsch Jr.
Education Next, Vol. 1, No. 1
2001
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Library Topic: What is Education?

"The real difference between classical education and child-directed education is not that the classical schoolmaster cracks the whip and says 'I don't care if you hate this --do it anyway.' The classical schoolmaster says 'I am a leader and you are a disciple. Because I am older and more mature and have done this before, I know what will bring you delight down the road. Because you are a child and you are immature, you cannot see the rewards that this current work can bring. So you must trust me. Submit to this and it will bring you delight down the road.' It assumes that the parent, not the child, has the long view. And it assumes that a child of six or seven--or for that matter of 12 or 13--is not yet mature enough to take the long view.

What classical education tries to do is to open up the child's eyes to fields of knowledge that they didn't even know existed. It also acknowledges that being educated and training your mind is hard work and takes a certain amount of striving."

Susan Wise Bauer
School Reform News
The Heartland Institute
January 1, 2001
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Library Topic: What is Education?

"Education is tradition, and tradition (as its name implies) can be treason."

G. K. Chesterton
What’s Wrong With the World
Project Gutenberg
December 9, 2008
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Library Topic: What is Education?

"The classical education is, above all, systematic — in direct contrast to the scattered, unorganized nature of so much secondary education. This systematic, rigorous study has two purposes.

Rigorous study develops virtue in the student. Aristotle defined virtue as the ability to act in accordance to what one knows to be right. The virtuous man (or woman) can force himself to do what he knows to be right, even when it runs against his inclinations. The classical education continually asks a student to work against his baser inclinations (laziness, or the desire to watch another half hour of TV) in order to reach a goal — mastery of a subject.

Systematic study also allows the student to join what Mortimer Adler calls the 'Great Conversation' — the ongoing conversation of great minds down through the ages. Much modern education is so eclectic that the student has little opportunity to make connections between past events and the flood of current information. 'The beauty of the classical curriculum,' writes classical schoolmaster David Hicks, 'is that it dwells on one problem, one author, or one epoch long enough to allow even the youngest student a chance to exercise his mind in a scholarly way: to make connections and to trace developments, lines of reasoning, patterns of action, recurring symbolisms, plots, and motifs.'"

Susan Wise Bauer
The Well-Trained Mind
June 3, 2009
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Library Topic: What is Education?
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Library Topic: What is Education?

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Commentary or Blog Post

"I asked Fulton County high school teacher Jordan Kohanim to write a piece about what she wanted for her students this year. Jordan joined forces with fellow Centennial High School English teachers Larken McCord and Cathy Rumfelt to write a powerful letter about their goals for their students and for all students. School resumes in Fulton County on Monday

Here is their combined effort....

In this article, Charles Murray explains the need that highly gifted children have for a solid, classical education. Classical education involves more than the pursuit of high knowledge, for as Murray implies, a solid, classical education will involve the study of character and sound...

This interview finds Tracy Lee Simmons discussing the issues of classical education in today’s schools. According to Simmons, classical education - and its emphasis on Greek and Latin - was the schooling norm for many centuries. Simmons believes that classical education provides...

In an interview with George Clowes, Susan Bauer explains the core principles of child education and describes how classical education effectively fulfills those same principles. According to Bauer, current public education...

Education philosopher E.D. Hirsch uses this article to differentiate between the romantic and classical ideas of education. According to Hirsch, the romantic - and eventually progressive - idea of creativity and natural learning gradually usurped the unnatural form of...

In this article, Russell Kirk seeks to describe the components and benefits of a liberal education. According to Kirk, "True education is meant to develop the individual human being, the person, rather than to serve the state." Kirk opines that giving students a...

This essay lays out the tenets of classical education or the "trivium." According to Bauer, the "trivium" revolves around "grammar," "logic," and "rhetoric," and presents an education that draws on effective practices and sources from history. In short, classical...

This article explains the philosophical differences between Aristotle and Plato and then relates these differences to the classical education system. According to Cothran, Aristotle’s philosophies represent one of the crowning features of classical...

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This article gives an extensive overview of education - particularly compulsory education - in a variety of western countries through the years. Rothbard seeks to convince his audience that an individualized, parental directed education is much better for a child than the state run, robotic, institutionalized education that is the general norm.

Peter Berkowitz takes a look at what education currently consists of on the university front and determines that many students are not being offered a well-rounded curriculum of knowledge. He describes John Stuart Mill’s ideal "liberal education," which combines classical education elements with more recent, scientific, and advanced subjects.

This article traces the evolution of "formal education" throughout history, particularly in the medieval era. Herbener declares that the education process and market was much more productive in the eras in which parents or private entities were responsible for child education.

Plato’s educational philosophies seem to have encompassed the whole being, for as Kamtekar explains, "Plato describes education as a process in which the natural capacities of the soul—and especially of reason—are awakened and developed."

According to the author, modern education practices fail to train a child’s mind to learn and expand beyond their school years, a fact which Sayers attributes to the academic decline that is currently occurring.

Video/Podcast/Media

In this lecture Professor Nash explores how books and libraries molded the "remarkable elite that made and preserved the American Revolution."

Andrew Coulson discusses the history of education covering ancient times, the Middle Ages, Colonial America and the devlopment of public government-run education in England and America.

This video clip features the audio version of chapter one from The Abolition of Man. This well-known book describes some of C.S. Lewis' views on education practices and theories. Lewis condemns many of the popular educational theories of his day, most notably the process of grammar instruction via "the little green book."

In the second audio section of The Abolition of Man, Lewis begins to question the educational methods of the twentieth century. According to Lewis, the educators of his day were filling children’s minds with philosophical ideas rather than the factual elements which are commonly believed to be the purpose of education. Lewis thus implies that education in...

The third audio section of The Abolition of Man finds Lewis quoting the ideas of many Jewish, Greek, and other ancient educational philosophers. Lewis opines that education should consist of instilling objective truths in young people, not "propaganda" like Lewis believes the educators of his day were engaged in.

This is the final audio section of chapter one from The Abolition of Man. In this part Lewis concludes that the educational ideas of his day were inhibiting students from true learning and were thus producing "men without chests," a product which Lewis soundly condemned.

Primary Document

"This essay, written sometime during King's junior year at Morehouse, explores the dual function of education. According to King, education must 'discipline the mind' and orient human life around a set of morals. Without this latter component, King warns, education is 'a ship without a compass.'"

"The English nation, for their improvements in the theory of government, has, at least, more merit with the human race than any other among the moderns. The late most beautiful and liberal speculations of many writers, in various parts of Europe, are manifestly derived from English sources. Americans, too, ought for ever to acknowledge their obligations to English writers, or rather have as...

A key foundational work in philosophical writings, Plato’s Republic is considered to be "the first treatise upon education." As the introduction notes, Plato’s educational philosophies are expressed specifically in the second section of the ...

"Whether you agree with his ideas or not, Rousseau was an intellectual force of such magnitude that his ideas still impact our thinking about human nature and the educational process two centuries later. His work Emile compares to Plato's Republic in its remarkable breadth. Not only does the book describe a pedagogical method for training children...

Immanuel Kant’s treatise on education declares that the topic consists of "discipline," "culture," "discretion," and "morality." Kant deals with the physical, mental, and emotional well-being of the child, and gives a variety of practical suggestions on how to...

In Meyer v. Nebraska, the Supreme Court struck down a law that prohibited teaching German or other foreign languages until the ninth grade. The Court reasoned that there was no compelling need in this case to infringe on the rights of parents and teachers to decide the best course of education for students. This court helped to shape the meaning of and rights to...

In this piece Dewey truly does lay out his own "creed" on education, even beginning each paragraph with, "I believe."  Using his extensive background in psychology and combining it with his social philosophy, Dewey presents five sections concerning education:
1)      What Education Is
2)     ...

According to Terrence Moore's introduction to this work, George Turnbull was the only philosopher of the Scottish Enlightenment to write extensively on the issue of education. Moore explains that although Turnbull drew from John Locke’s work on education,...

"God, that made all things good, and blessed them, Gen. i. 28—31, imparted expressly this blessing first to his creatures, capable thereof, that they should increase and multiply in their kind. More especially, God created our first parents, male and female, and blessed them, saying, 'Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the earth.' This order then set, he hath preserved to this day, and...

John Stuart Mill was a British political philosopher and politician. In this classic essay, he argues that "the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilised community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others.... Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign."

G.K. Chesterton’s essay on education addresses everything from what education is, to what role parents and public schooling should play in education. Chesterton believes that education is continually occurring whether or not a person is in an acceptable educational...

According to Plutarch, the education of children should begin from the point of their conception. This fact suggests that Plutarch viewed education as something more than the mastery of various scholastic subjects; indeed, this piece demonstrates that...

In this piece, Quintilian, a Spanish-born Roman orator, describes what he believes is the ideal course for educating a child. Quintilian encourages early instruction in a variety of areas, including Greek and Latin, as well as good role-models and...

In the eyes of John Locke, the education of a child includes more than books and schooling. Indeed, Locke’s thoughts on education cover the whole physical, mental, spiritual, and emotional being of the...

"The Jeffersonian Cyclopedia is designed to be a complete classified arrangement of the Writings of Thomas Jefferson on Government, Politics, Law, Education, Commerce, Agriculture, Manufactures, Navigation, Finance, Morals, Religious Freedom, and many other topics of permanent human interest. It contains everything of importance that Jefferson wrote on these subjects."

In the eyes of Maria Montessori, "Education is to guide activity, not repress it." This statement expresses the nature of Montessori’s educational views, which are still frequently referenced and...

The Christian school is to be favored for two reasons.

Aristotle, one of the best known Western philosophers, concluded his work on ethics with the statement that he intended to look into "the whole question of the management of a state." The Politics was his effort to do so. He examines the origin and purpose of government, and then discusses Plato's The Republic and other proposed and existing forms of government.

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