Cyber-Attack: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Cyber-AttacksA common concern of anyone with a personal computer is that of viruses. Viruses can cause harm to the computer and steal information. But, are government and military systems vulnerable as well? What might be stolen? Could cyber-attacks be used to cause physical damage? What other vulnerabilities might be exploited in a cyber-attack? Could an attack disrupt infrastructure such as power grids? All these questions and more are answered in the FAQ below.

1. What is a cyber-attack?

It is difficult to concisely define a cyber-attack. Not only is there a wide range of possible methods, but each method delivers the attack differently, with various speeds and types of destruction. According to the FBI, "the term was coined in the 1980s by Barry Collin who discussed this dynamic of terrorism as transcendence from the physical to the virtual realm and 'the intersection, the convergence of these two worlds.'" More broadly, a cyber-attack could be described as attack performed within the realm of cyberspace.

A cyber-attack is not a specific weapon; rather, it can be thought of as a strategy. As will be seen later, a cyber-attack is capable of performing a variety of functions, from stealing information and dispersing false information, to destroying a very limited amount of machinery and even causing large-scale blackouts. The former of these two ranges is more commonly referred to as cyber-espionage while the latter is called hostile attacks.  The graph below depicts the startling escalation in the number of cyber-attacks.


Simpler, less harmful types of cyber-attacks are, however, part of the everyday life of the majority of the United States population. Anyone who regularly connects to the Internet is exposed to various types of malware (malicious software) including viruses, spyware, worms, trojan horses, SQL injections (typically associated with “hacking”), etc. Such threats can become harmful attacks by simply clicking on unwanted pop-up advertisements or opening the wrong email or attachment. These can suddenly delete computer files, steal personal information or completely destroy a computer. These malicious pieces of software are spread through email, USB drives, downloads, networks and more.


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2. How are cyber-attacks carried out?

There are 3 basic parts to a cyber-attack:

  1. Access: a method to get inside or gain access to a network or system

  2. Vulnerability: some part of the system that the attacker can take advantage of or manipulate

  3. Payload: the purpose of the attack, namely, what exactly is the target and how significant will the damage be

A safe cracker, for instance, must know where the safe is and how to get into it. The vulnerability would require knowledge of the safe, its locking mechanism and what aspects may be exploited. The payload, in this case, would be a bag full of money. Given these three aspects, prior intelligence is needed to understand what access is available and what vulnerability can be exploited in order to attack precise targets.

A standard computer virus, probably the most common form of a cyber-attack, may gain initial access to a computer or system in two ways: remotely or proximately. Some viruses, such as Conficker, spread through a network of computers (remote access) by exploiting holes in the network security or by attaching an infected USB drive to a computer. Such a virus is not only capable of ruining services on the computer itself, but also of blocking certain websites that might enable the user to eliminate the virus. A virus, Trojan, worm, etc. is primarily the means of carrying out a cyber-attack (see chart above), while the real attack is the virus’ payload.

There are many other forms cyber-attacks may take. A denial of service attack occurs when “an attacker attempts to prevent legitimate users from accessing information or services.” This is typically accomplished when the attacker overloads a system with requests to view information. This would be an example of a remote attack. By extension, a distributed denial of service (DDoS) occurs when multiple computers are involved in a denial of service attack causing an even larger amount of traffic on the target website. This is the same concept as we’ve all experienced with cell phone disruption due to high usage.

Spearphishing is another simple method by which an attack may gain access to a computer system or network. Once some information about a target is acquired, an email is sent purporting to be from a legitimate company asking for information such as usernames and passwords to banking websites or network logins.

Backdoors, or hooks, are placed inside a computer or network in order to create a vulnerability that can be exploited later on.

If direct access is possible, tampering with basic electronics is a simple type of cyber-attack. It is also possible that such software or even hardware could be installed into electronics by the original manufacturer. Some fear that this is what is being done in Chinese-produced microchips for various American computer companies.

Here’s a look at how fast the number of threats have been rising this decade:


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3. What can be attacked?

As cyber-attacks encompass a wide range of methods, they are also capable of affecting a very wide range of targets. Cyber-attacks can affect anything that is connected to a computer or a computer network. This would include not only single computers and network-connected computers but also USB storage devices and even machinery controlled by computer or network equipment. Due to the great diversity of possible targets for cyber-attacks, the next few sections will present several examples of cyber-attacks that have happened in the past.

Despite fear over cyber-attacks on airline services or nuclear facilities, the most common and arguably the most dangerous are attacks on critical infrastructure, as shown here:


2007 saw the emergence of a Trojan-type virus that goes by the name Zeus. Zeus infects a computer through an email attachment attacking both personal computers and businesses. When opened, the virus installs itself on the computer and is able to log username and password information. As a user fills in information on private websites such as online banking, Zeus copies the entered information and sends it back to a designated location on the Internet. Not only has Zeus been responsible for the theft of $70 million as of 2010, it is still being developed to allow for new functionality and is available for sale around the Internet in “underground” circles. Zeus and other cyber-attacks like it are a large part of the reason that the United States has the most cyber-attacks of any nation.


While causing problems for businesses and individuals, there are other threats capable of compromising our national security. The United States now strongly relies on the Internet across the board, including storing even the most sensitive military documents and technologies. According to an article in the Armed Forces Journal, published in 2008, “the Pentagon uses more than 5 million computers on 100,000 networks at as many as 1,500 sites in at least 65 countries worldwide.” With such a great reliance on this massive network, cyber-attacks have become increasingly useful as a weapon against the United States and any country relying heavily on integrated networks.

In 2008 and 2009, while investigating claims of China spying on institutions in Tibet, a vast and complex network of cyber-spionage was discovered. Dubbed GhostNet, this virus had infected at least 1295 computers in 103 countries and had even gained access to government computers from multiple nations. The virus spread inside an email attachment that appeared to be a valid file. Once inside a computer it provided full control of that computer to an outside source allowing searching and downloading of files from the computer.

In 2007 a coordinated experiment called Aurora, was run between the Idaho National Laboratories and the Department of Homeland Security. A cyber-team was given the task of breaking into a simulated electric generation control system and destroying a generator using only a computer and the Internet. In the end the team of hackers was able to bypass the security protocols of the generators safety system, instruct the generator to exceed its safety limits and, quite literally, tear itself apart.

Here’s a list of significant attacks just during July 2011:


In summary, anything relying on computer systems, even the most sensitive data, is capable of being attacked whether remotely over an Internet connection or in proximity through removable devices such as a USB drive.

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4. What are the implications of a cyber-attack?

In the case of both cyber- and conventional espionage, plans can be discovered, strategies compromised and secrets stolen. During hostile attacks, systems can be shut down, communications cut off and infrastructure destroyed. An analysis of the many different types of attacks can be found here. Below is a chart showing which systems are the most dangerous and innovative:


Contrary to conventional warfare where the identity of the attacker is often known immediately or can easily be discovered, a cyber-attacker is much harder to discover. The Internet can easily provide an impenetrable shield for the attacker’s identity. Due to the size of certain computer networks, it can also be almost impossible to determine that a network is clean. This just adds further complication.

The following video is a controlled exercise demonstrating a cyber-attack on a chemical facility. The participants were divided into two teams: one to protect the replica chemical plant and one to attack it. In the end, the defending team was left with chemical contamination and no power.

The next video is a report of the Aurora experiment discussed above.

With results similar to those of an EMP attack, a large-scale cyber-attack could shut down a large percentage of the nation’s power grid, leaving entire cities in the dark and unable to carry out a large majority of normal business. Depending on the specific target of the attack within the power grid and the payload, power could be out in these locations for months.

Outside of controlled experiments there have been numerous real attacks that have given us an idea of what might be done in the future.

Estonia, like all modernized nations, relies almost entirely on the Internet for many of the most fundamental functions of business and government. Estonia has a government which, according to the following video, transacts all business online and a population who conducts 99% of banking transactions electronically. In 2007, protesting the relocation of a Soviet war memorial in Estonia, groups of Russian hackers devised and carried out plans creating a denial of service in all Estonian networks. The attacks began by shutting down the websites for the country’s president and parliament. The banking networks were also shut down for multiple days essentially cutting off communication of the Estonian banking system from the rest of the world.

In January of 2012, in response to the shutdown of file sharing websites by the United States and New Zealand governments, a hacker group named Anonymous used DDoS attacks to shutdown multiple government, copyright, music and film industry websites including the U.S. Justice Department’s website.


PlayStation was attacked in April 2011. Many of its online users had credit card information stolen. Following refusal to enable their customers to donate to WikiLeaks, MasterCard and Visa were both shut down by irritated hackers. Google was hacked in 2010. Personal password information and access to accounts was revealed. There is speculation that the Chinese government carried it out in order to access the accounts of government dissidents. Predictably, there are countless more examples of this, but these are some of the highest profile attacks in recent years.

In 2010, the most innovative and physically destructive virus the world has known was unleashed. It was discovered that a virus had been “in the wild” (this refers to a virus being accessible on the world-wide, unsecured Internet) since mid-2009 but had for some reason remained inactive. Closer examination of this virus, Stuxnet, revealed that, while it was reporting back information about the systems it had infected, damage being done to the infected computer was unseen. Stuxnet spread, not through email or infected websites, but with proximity means either through local networks or USB drives. Stuxnet’s target was programmable logic controllers (PLCs) produced by Siemens that control the mechanical operation of many different items worldwide. Specifically, Stuxnet’s targeted the PLCs controlling the uranium enrichment centrifuges at the Natanz nuclear facility in Iran. Once inside the computer networks of Natanz, the virus spread to the PLCs. It instructed the PLCs to increase the rotation speed of the enrichment centrifuges far past operationally safe levels. While this happened, it intercepted warning signals from the controller, silenced alarms, and reported that all was well. Reports of the damage vary but anywhere from 10% to 20% of the centrifuges at Natanz were destroyed.


As was said before, the implications of a cyber-attack vary as widely as the payload it carries, from simple annoyances, to the theft of private or classified information, to the physical destruction of infrastructure.

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5. Who has the capability of doing this?

Almost anybody has the ability to deliver a cyber-attack and they generally focus on the places with the most Internet users and most money:


Technically speaking, the only requirement for the execution of a cyber-attack is access to a computer with an Internet connection. Using the Internet for hostile operations, whether against “soft targets,” like individuals or businesses, or against government and military targets, is of great strategic interest to any country. But this is of particular interest to attackers wishing to remain anonymous. Manipulating the route of the attack makes the point of origin very difficult to determine. Further, unlike in conventional warfare, cyber-attacks can be carried out not only remotely but also by small, scattered groups or even individuals. Featured in Wired magazine, a small Romanian town, fittingly nicknamed “Hackerville,” is home to some of the world’s best solo hackers. Though posing a small threat to governments, they have successfully stolen millions of dollars from individuals and businesses around the world.

Attacks against individuals and small targets can be accomplished much more easily than those against high profile, government targets. They most commonly are carried out through email.


Through more difficult, attacks against the United States government yield a much greater reward. Here’s a brief overview of some of the cyber-attack history between the United States and other nations:


For more than a decade China has been working toward a full modernization of its military. The goal of this modernization is for China to become a force capable of conflicts not only in air, land, sea and space, but also in the cyber-realm, or “fifth domain.” As part of electronic warfare, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) of China is devoting resources and personnel (“cyber-warriors”) that enable it to protect its own networks and also carry out cyber-attacks against foreign adversaries. 


Coordinating cyber-attacks with traditional warfare could include theft of strategic information from command centers, theft of technological secrets, sabotage of the defense system, etc. Some argue that China’s efforts in cyber war are “the single largest, most intensive foreign intelligence gathering effort since the Cold War,” and that “Chinese espionage in the United States, which now comprises the single greatest threat to U.S. technology, is straining the U.S. counterintelligence establishment. This illicit activity significantly contributes to China’s military modernization and acquisition of new capabilities.”


Russia's investment in and malicious use of the cyber domain are not as extensive as China's; however, destructive abilities certainly do exist. The previously discussed denial of service attacks on Estonia as well as similar attacks on Georgia during the 2008 military invasion have both been attributed to Russia. However, further investigation suggested these attacks may not have been orchestrated by the Kremlin, but rather by groups of Russians working on their own. Notwithstanding, Russia appears to be making further efforts to develop the capacity for national “information warfare.” While Russia sees the benefit of espionage in cyber-attacks, it also sees the primary use of “informational warfare” as a political weapon that, rather than being used to steal information or destroy infrastructure, can be used to destabilize government and ruin general trust.

According to intelligence officials, both Russia and China have been able to infiltrate United States infrastructure, including the electrical grid. While it appears that no damage was done, successful penetration into such a system provides an opportunity for an attacker to plant a backdoor. Backdoors allow the attacker to return to the system at some point in the future.


Iran has had its share of dealing with cyber-attacks in the past, particularly with the attack by Stuxnet. Recently, Iran has invested $1 billion in new technology and personnel for use in cyber warfare and cyber defense. They have also been actively recruiting new members for a “cyber-army.” According to the Iranian government, the country is preparing for a full scale cyber war between Iran and Israel. It claims to have the capabilities for counter attacks against both the U.S. and Israel.

North Korea

North Korea has shown its ability to carry out cyber-attacks in the past. In 2009, North Korea was able to shut down the U.S. Treasury Department, Secret Service, Federal Trade Commission and Transportation Department websites as well as sites in South Korea. Far from being short outages, some of these sites were incapacitated for 24 hours or more, with the Transportation Department’s site being offline for 48 hours. According to North Korea, 100 world class hackers are trained every year to deliver cyber-terrorism operations particularly with the intent of causing chaos in South Korea. However, this claim by North Korea is believed to be an exaggeration.


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6. What can the government do about this?

In late 2008, a signal was discovered attempting to reach an outside network from inside the US Central Command (CentCom). Given CentCom’s connection with all things pertaining to the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, this raised great concern. The malware, later named Agent.btz, had also infected networks used by the United States to transmit top-secret information to U.S. officials around the world. Networks for this purpose as well as command networks like CentCom are usually “air gapped,” meaning they are completely isolated from the rest of the Internet. However, this does not mean they are not susceptible to attacks. Agent.btz likely entered these networks through proximity access from an infected USB drive that had been used in an unsecured computer. But critical information was not transmitted to outside computers. This attack led to the creation of a new division of the US Department of Defense, Cyber Command (CyberCom), to centralize the protection of the United States information security.

Because CyberCom allows the U.S. government extensive power over cyberspace, because its creation was a unilateral executive decision, and given recent SOPA and PIPA legislation proposals, many fear greater governmental invasion of individual privacy and liberty.


On the other hand it is argued that the integrity of information and critical infrastructure is vital to national defense, and that therefore sufficient efforts and funds must be allocated to its protection.

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7. What can businesses do about this?

The efforts businesses should put into effect are much the same as the efforts discussed regarding national defense. Unfortunately, given the high costs advanced security systems are often impractical for small businesses. Specifically the FCC outlines 10 important tips for businesses:

  1. Train employees in security principles
  2. Protect information, computers and networks from viruses, spyware and other malicious code
  3. Provide firewall security for your Internet connection
  4. Download and install software updates for your operating systems and applications as they become available
  5. Make backup copies of important business data and information
  6. Control physical access to your computers and network components
  7. Secure your Wi-Fi networks – if you have a Wi-Fi network for your workplace, make sure it is secure and hidden
  8. Require individual user accounts for each employee
  9. Limit employee access to data and information, and limit authority to install software
  10. Regularly change passwords

Though not always as useful or convenient as regular networks, networks with critical or confidential information are better secured on air-gapped systems. When critical infrastructure was built, the notion of cyber-attacks was unheard of, let alone a problem. But as the Internet became more widespread, these systems became integrated to enable remote operation. However, this led to vulnerabilities in their systems. Due to the great value and importance of these systems, it is necessary for utility companies like electric and water, to air-gap their networks and controlling systems.


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8. What can you do about this?

The primary protections against attacks on personal computers are antivirus software and protections built into the computer's operating system (Windows, Mac OS, Linux etc.). Both your operating system and likely your antivirus software will contain firewalls which should always be active. Firewalls essentially serve as a barrier to incoming and outgoing network traffic through your computer.


  1. Conscientiousness is another very important means of keeping personal computers safe.
  2. Do not open suspicious emails and attachments or emails from unknown senders.
  3. Do not click links on the Internet that seem “too good to be true”.
  4. Update your software regularly.
  5. Do not provide personal information including usernames and passwords unless it is certain that the website is legitimate and secure.
  6. Moreover, use discretion even for established websites.
  7. Avoid dealing with companies that have a history of poor cyber-defense.


But what about attacks on infrastructure and military information? Awareness of the issue is important in a discussion of cyber-attacks. Many people have heard about the risks of a cyber-attack on military information, and most have basic antivirus software installed on their personal computer. But too many are unaware of the most important risk to the proper functioning of the nation: critical infrastructure. While there is currently funding for cyber security within the military, such protections, as part of national defense, may need to be perpetuated in the face of budget cuts in order to protect the vital systems holding sensitive military intelligence.

Personal information, while held on personal computers is also held by many companies. Banks, credit card companies, online stores, and more all hold personal information. Because of this, the security of these companies can directly affect the consumer. It is of advantage to every consumer to do business with the more secure companies.

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of data experienced by billions of people worldwide, the Pentagon is adopting a less poetic definition.

A May 12 “for official use only” memo signed by Deputy Defense Secretary Gordon England, titled 'the definition of cyberspace,' offers a 28-word meaning for the term...

"The Chinese have called it their 'Underground Great Wall' — a vast network of tunnels designed to hide their country’s increasingly sophisticated missile and nuclear arsenal.

For the past three years, a small band of obsessively dedicated students at Georgetown University has called it something else: homework.

Led by their hard-charging professor, a former top Pentagon official...

The United States needs to adopt a wholly different strategy - one that is aimed at bringing down Kim's regime, not propping it up.

"Cyberspies have penetrated the U.S. electrical grid and left behind software programs that could be used to disrupt the system, according to current and former national-security officials.

The spies came from China, Russia and other countries, these officials said, and were believed to be on a mission to navigate the U.S. electrical system and its controls. The intruders haven't sought...

"Most Americans—whether members of the public or politicians in Congress—ignore or are unaware of the very real threat of an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack. A nuclear device detonated high in the atmosphere above the American mainland can easily disable the country’s electrical grid—shutting down nearly all communications, transportation, and service systems. Overnight, daily life as...

"America is totally unprepared for an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack that would set civilization back to the 1800s, Dr. William Graham, who was chairman of the bipartisan congressional Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from EMP Attack, tells Newsmax.

The blame rests with both Democrats and Republicans.

'It was a failure in the last administration; it’s a...

"In search of new insights into the nuclear dangers posed by Iran, the press and pundits have latched onto a single sentence found in the Pentagon's April 2010 congressionally-mandated assessment of Iran's military power: 'With sufficient foreign assistance, Iran could probably develop and test an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) capable of reaching the United States by 2015.'


"A widespread and unusually resilient computer attack that began July 4 knocked out the Web sites of several government agencies, including some that are responsible for fighting cyber crime, The Associated Press has learned.

The Treasury Department, Secret Service, Federal Trade Commission and Transportation Department Web sites were all down at varying points over the holiday weekend...

"When Americans think about the threat from foreign missiles, it’s nearly always the catastrophic effect of a conventional nuclear blast that comes to mind. We think of the doomsday scenarios that have played out in many movies and TV shows: A nuke explodes over a large city - leveling buildings, crushing houses and creating a swath of destruction.

But that’s not the only threat that...

"It is no secret that modern warfare is increasingly dependent on advanced computers — and no country's armed forces are more reliant on the digital age for information superiority than those of the U.S. This is both the American military's greatest strength — and potentially its greatest weakness.

Today, the Pentagon uses more than 5 million computers on 100,000 networks at as many as...

"An escalation of rhetoric between the U.S. and Iran over its nuclear program is rattling oil markets—casting a dark cloud on the newborn 2012.

Yet, behind the headlines, the high-voltage engagement is global diplomacy’s own version of a Lindy Hop dance—fast paced, acrobatic and, for now, a bit overplayed."

"Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs) are foreign organizations that are designated by the Secretary of State in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), as amended."

"France will move surveillance drones to West Africa and is holding secretive talks with US officials in Paris as it seeks to steer international military action to help Mali's government win back the north from al-Qaeda-linked rebels."

"Cyber spies have once again hacked into a major US system – the target this time being the $300 billion joint strike fighter programme of the US forces and the British Royal Navy, which is aimed at homogenising the air defence needs of the two armed forces. The spy ring, widely dubbed GhostNet, is reported to be based in China, though the Chinese government has denied any involvement."

The Heritage Foundation's Missile Defense Study Teams and Commission on Missile Defense have concluded that it is imperative for the safety of America that a global ballistic missile defense system be deployed first from the sea and then from space.

"Google moved quickly to announce that it would stop censoring its Chinese ­service after realising dissidents were at risk from attempts to use the company's technology for political ­surveillance, according to a source with direct ­knowledge of the internet giant's most senior management.

As the US intervened in Google's challenge to Beijing, the source told the Guardian the company's...

"Hackers seeking source code from Google, Adobe and dozens of other high-profile companies used unprecedented tactics that combined encryption, stealth programming and an unknown hole in Internet Explorer, according to new details released by the anti-virus firm McAfee."

"The World Conference on International Telecommunications kicked off Monday behind closed doors in Dubai to a chorus of opposition from corporations, governments and civil-liberties groups worldwide."

"This was not the first botnet strike ever, nor was it the largest. But never before had an entire country been targeted on almost every digital front all at once, and never before had a government itself fought back. 'The attacks were aimed at the essential electronic infrastructure of the Republic of Estonia,' Aaviksoo tells me later. 'All major commercial banks, telcos, media outlets, and...

"The latest warning by Iran, that a U.S. aircraft carrier that recently transited through the Strait of Hormuz should not do so again, is a sign to the West that should be well-observed. It tells us the regime in Tehran is ready for a fight.

Tensions between Iran and the U.S. are so high, a conflagration could be tripped off without either country intending it. This latest spiral of...

Although most people don't realize it, the Korean War never officially ended. It has been a legal ceasefire for the past 50 years. The public has been led to believe, however, that the war was, for all practical purposes, over.

"The American policy of imposing sanctions on Iran may have run into a problem: Instead of becoming more accommodating, Iran seems to be upping the ante. But if sanctions are not intimidating Iran's leaders, there is one challenge they fear: the brain drain to foreign — especially American — universities."

"A group of researchers has discovered serious security holes in six top industrial control systems used in critical infrastructure and manufacturing facilities and, thanks to exploit modules they released on Thursday, have also made it easy for hackers to attack the systems before they’re patched or taken offline.

The vulnerabilities were found in widely used programmable logic...

"American companies should avoid doing business with China's two leading technology firms because they pose a national security threat to the United States, the House Intelligence Committee is warning in a report to be issued Monday."

Wired published this fascinating article on the small Romanian town, Râmnicu Vâlcea, and its role in the current mess of cyber-warfare and intellectual property theft. Many of the world's most dangerous hackers have sought safety and anonymity here. The article investigates their lifestyle, the Romanian police who attempt to crack down on this illegal activity, and how these young...

"Before the United States goes to war with Iran, as many Americans seem anxious to do, we should first understand how Iran became our implacable enemy. U.S. presidents from Eisenhower to Carter viewed Iran as our friend. The CIA didn't see this coming, and neither did our State Department.

The story goes back to the early days of World War II."

"U.S. policymakers agree that as possible terrorist attacks go, the worst-case-scenario would involve detonation of a nuclear bomb in a major American city. This most catastrophic of scenarios provides ample fodder for the plot of television dramas, but the actual likelihood of such an event is open to debate.

Michael A. Levi CFR Fellow for Science and Technology and author of the...

"In our hemisphere, anti-American populists have been elected in Venezuela, Bolivia and Ecuador, and are busy centralizing power and reversing the trend of the 1990s toward openness and economic integration. Around the world, authoritarian regimes are learning repression from one another. What political scientist Samuel Huntington labeled the 'third wave' of democratization began in the 1970s...

"Tensions have heightened between Tehran and Washington in the strategic Strait of Hormuz following increased sanctions over Iran's nuclear program. Iran test-fired missiles and has threatened to close the strait. This is to signal to the United States and its neighbors in the region that Iran has a deterrent capacity, says Michael Elleman, a leading expert on Iran's missile development. The...

"In the 1960s and 70s, the Soviet Union sponsored waves of political violence against the West. The Red Brigades in Italy and the German Red Army Faction both terrorized Europe through bank robberies, kidnapping, and acts of sabotage. The Soviets wanted to use these left-wing terror groups to destabilize Italy and Germany to break up NATO. State-sponsored terrorism was a deeply Soviet...

"Bush's disastrous foreign policy--especially the Iraq fiasco--has led many to conclude that diplomatic 'engagement' is our best hope for stopping Iran's nuclear program. But while Bush's policy is a failure, engagement is not the solution.

Bush's 'moralistic' approach, we're told, entails denouncing nations as evil, refusing negotiations, and isolating and punishing hostile regimes....

"The threat to intellectual property is very real. Even the most motivated, committed and enthusiastic staff can and will make mistakes that may result in significant data loss. By investing in appropriate technology solutions coupled with regular staff training and awareness sessions to mitigate your inside threat, you are taking proactive steps that should see this problem significantly...

"After seeing spending double over a decade, U.S. intelligence agencies are bracing for about $25 billion in budget cuts over the next 10 years that top officials said will increase security risks."

"The impending cyber threat requires the immediate attention of Congress, according to a top intelligence official who singled out China, Russia and a failure of policy keeping up with the speed of technology as top threats to the nation’s critical networks."

"Iran has been a non-nuclear weapon state party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) since 1970, and has possessed a nuclear program for more than fifty years, ostensibly for peaceful purposes. The nuclear program has advanced significantly in the past decade with Iran's decision to enrich its own uranium. Tehran's refusal to halt uranium enrichment and its...

"We are not prepared for an electromagnetic pulse attack. Iran is almost prepared to launch one."

"Tehran has embarked on an ambitious plan to boost its offensive and defensive cyber-warfare capabilities and is investing $1 billion in developing new technology and hiring new computer experts.

Iran has been the victim of a number of cyber attacks in recent years, some attributed to Israel. The most famous attack was by a virus called Stuxnet which is believed, at its prime, to have...

"Iran is gearing up for a cyberwar campaign after being hit with coordinated, sophisticated cyberattacks last year that reportedly crippled its Natanz nuclear enrichment facility.

The Islamic Republic plans 'to fight our enemies with abundant power in cyberspace and Internet warfare,' according to Brigadier Gen. Gholamreza Jalali, who leads the country’s Passive Defense Organization...

"Iran has launched a long-range missile during naval exercises in the Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz, the latest show of defiance by Tehran as the west weighs tighter sanctions over its nuclear programme.

Iranian state television showed footage of Ghader, a ground-to-sea missile, being test-fired on Monday and hitting its supposed targets. The missile, said to have a reach of 200km, is...

"Iran has successfully test-fired some of the longest range missiles in its arsenal, state media say. The Revolutionary Guards tested the Shahab-3 and Sajjil rockets, which are believed to have ranges of up to 2,000km (1,240 miles), reports said. The missiles' range could potentially permit them to reach Israel and US bases in the Gulf, analysts say."

"Despite their geographical distance, the two countries have forged increasingly close ties, a lot of which is down to their shared anti-Americanism, although concrete projects have often lagged behind the rhetoric. ...

But the two countries signed only vague co-operation accords and Chavez gave few signals that Venezuela would seek to undercut toughened sanctions over Iran's nuclear...

"One month to the day after the 10th anniversary of 9/11 comes a sobering moment in the history of the U.S. war on terror: The Department of Justice has charged that 'factions of the Iranian government' plotted to assassinate Saudi Arabia's ambassador to the United States by blowing him up inside a Washington, D.C., restaurant."

"Pentagon estimates show that Iran could have missiles capable of reaching the East Coast of the United States by the year 2015.

If the Iranians acquire a nuclear bomb, they might be able to cripple their 'Great Satan' even sooner through an electromagnetic pulse, or EMP, attack off America's coastline."

"The foundation of Iran’s nuclear program can be traced to extensive Chinese and Russian cooperation in the 1990s, according to a former U.S. intelligence official who specialized on Tehran’s program."

"Recent reports indicate Iran could have a nuclear bomb by 2015, if not earlier. What has been largely ignored is Iran’s ability to acquire an equally destructive device, an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) weapon. Clifford D. May, president of the Foundation for the Defense of Democracies, and I recently penned an article describing how Iran can achieve its destructive ends — 'a world without...

"The Russian military was clearly superior to that of a small country in its 'near abroad'—Georgia—but is a 'resurgent' Russia a threat to the United States? If the United States insists on expanding its informal empire into Russia’s nearby sphere of influence, it has to expect some pushback from a Russia that is no longer as weak as it once was and is resentful at having been trampled on...

"As has been widely reported, Mallesons partners voted last Wednesday to approve the merger with Chinese firm King & Wood. Not that we thought they’d do otherwise, despite our controversial editorial to the contrary."

"The Cold War taught us that inefficient planned economies can execute priority projects well. Think Sputnik, the Moscow Olympics, and Russian nuclear physics. Although its output never reached half that of the U.S., the Soviet Union held us to rough military parity until the end of the Cold War. China will choose a new leadership in 2012, culminating a power struggle between reformists and...

"Terms like 'cyber-war' have been used a lot in the wake of the recent denial-of-service attacks on MasterCard, Visa and other entities that cut off support for WikiLeaks. But do these attacks really qualify?"

"An electronic spy network, based mainly in China, has infiltrated computers from government offices around the world, Canadian researchers say.

They said the network had infiltrated 1,295 computers in 103 countries."

"A few days after desert gunmen swept out of the Sahara and captured Timbuktu, the city's conquerors broadcast a message over its radio station."

"The cyberattacks on Google and 30 other companies were the most sophisticated in years, according to the computer security company's CTO."

"Which is the bigger threat to the U.S. and its vital interests--Islamic terrorism or China's economic and military expansion?

History teaches that extremist phases in Islam's development come and go and that the present surge of violence will pass. We need to combine vigilance with patience. To be vigilant is necessary, anyway. It's not a bad thing that the threat of suicide bombers...

"Defense Secretary Robert Gates created a new military command dedicated to cyber security on Tuesday, reflecting the Obama administration's plans to centralize and elevate computer security as a major national-security issue.

In a memo to senior Pentagon officials, Mr. Gates said he intends to recommend that Lt. Gen. Keith Alexander, director of the National Security Agency, take on...

"An attack on the British embassy in Tehran. A desperate pursuit of nuclear weapons. A plot to assassinate the Saudi ambassador in Washington. Alone, any one of these actions by Iran’s regime would be cause for alarm, but taken together they make it undeniably clear that the Iranian threat cannot be ignored. Now, there is news of another effort by Iran to take aim at the United States, this...

"In fact, Chavez's strident anti-Americanism directly challenges the security of the United States, and Venezuela should be placed on the State Department's list of state sponsors of terrorism."

"North Korea said Tuesday it would use nuclear weapons in a 'merciless offensive' if provoked — its latest bellicose rhetoric apparently aimed at deterring any international punishment for its recent atomic test blast."

"Newt Gingrich isn’t the only politician who’s freaked out by China and Russia’s online spying. But the new Republican presidential frontrunner may be the highest-profile political figure all but openly calling for cyberwar with Moscow and Beijing.

'I think that we have to treat state-based covert activities as the equivalent of acts of war,' Gingrich said in response to a question...

"The world economic downturn and upheaval in the Arab world might grab headlines, but another big problem looms: environmental change. Along with extreme weather patterns, rising sea levels, and other natural hazards, global warming disrupts freshwater resource availability -- with immense social and political implications. Earlier this year, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence published a report, Global Water Security, assessing hydropolitics around the world. In it, the authors show that international water disputes will affect not only the security interests of riparian states, but also of the United States."

"North Korea announced plans Friday to blast a satellite into space on the back of a long-range rocket, a provocative move that could jeopardize a weeks-old agreement with the U.S. exchanging food aid for nuclear concessions."

With North Korea's massive military budget, its weapons development has far exceeded what many believed it was capable of. The rogue nation created its first nuclear weapon in 2006 and are now believed to possess the technology necessary for creating a massive EMP attack.

"In North Korea's mountainous Hyungsan region, a military academy specializing in electronic warfare has been churning out 100 cybersoldiers every year for nearly two decades."

"A recent attack paralyzing the computer system of Nonghyup Bank has raised fears about North Korea’s cyber terrorism capabilities, especially following the past North Korean DDoS attacks on July 7, 2009, and March 4, 2011.

Although the two previous DDoS attacks only resulted in confusion for users of major governmental websites, the Nonghyup attack has shocked analysts due to the real...

"The danger is not the bomb per se, but rather who has it. Most of us do not worry about a democratic Britain, France, India, or Israel possessing nuclear weapons. The fright instead is over a Communist authoritarian China, an unhinged North Korea, an Islamist Pakistan, or an unstable Russia having nuclear weapons. Transparent democracies, in other words, are mostly reliable nuclear guardians...

"A high-altitude nuclear detonation produces an immediate flux of gamma rays from the nuclear reactions within the device. These photons in turn produce high energy free electrons by Compton scattering at altitudes between (roughly) 20 and 40 km. These electrons are then trapped in the Earth's magnetic field, giving rise to an oscillating electric current. This current is asymmetric in general...

"We are often asked which countries have nuclear weapons, are seeking them, or may seek them in the future. In trying to answer the question, we have had to consider which countries possessed or tried to obtain nuclear weapons in the past. Our findings about both current and historical nuclear weapons programs are outlined on an interactive world map, and summarized in a companion table."

"President Obama's comment to a Spanish-language television station in Miami that Venezuela doesn't pose a 'serious' threat to national security has provoked a storm of criticism from Republicans. According to Obama, 'what Mr. Chavez has done over the last several years has not had a serious national security impact on us. . . . My main concern when it comes to Venezuela is having the Venezuelan people have a voice in their affairs and that you end up ultimately having fair and free elections, which we don't always see.'"

"WASHINGTON — One day before leaving for Prague to sign an arms-control agreement with Russia, President Obama on Tuesday outlined a major shift in the nation's nuclear security policy that won plaudits from defense experts, nuclear watchdog groups and even a former top Bush-era nuclear security official.

'Like all complicated decisions, it (Obama's policy) has strengths and weaknesses...

"Hackers who appear to be based in China have conducted a 'coordinated, covert and targeted' campaign of cyber espionage against major Western energy firms, according to a report expected to be issued Thursday by cybersecurity firm McAfee Inc."

"Military leaders warned Congress on Wednesday that steeper cuts in defense spending, as either a policy choice or a consequence of political gridlock, will gut the armed forces and sap U.S. global influence.

Their predictions of doom, while disputed by some private defense and foreign policy analysts, reflect a consensus Pentagon view that even as the U.S. winds down its military...

U.S. intelligence agencies estimate it could take Beijing at least two more years 'to produce a modern force capable of defeating a moderate-size adversary.'

"High profile attacks, such as Aurora, Stuxnet and Zeus leave us in no doubt that cross border cyber attacks are real and not just plots for action movies. They also indicate a significant game change. Last month the Pentagon declared cyberspace is a new warfare domain. And even though that could be offensive or defensive, perhaps the best starting offense might be the best defense."

"American diplomats led a walkout at the U.N. General Assembly Thursday as Iran's President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad fiercely attacked the United States and major West European nations as 'arrogant powers' ruled by greed and eager for military adventurism.

The two U.S. diplomats, who specialize in the Middle East, were followed out of the chamber by diplomats from more than 30 countries....

"North Korea will not give up its nuclear weapons in exchange for economic aid. The United States will have to abandon its hostility towards Pyongyang first, North Korea’s KCNA news agency announced today.

'Unless the United States ends its hostile policy and threats towards our Republic, we shall never abandon our nuclear weapons even if the earth should split,' it said.


"The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has said that medium-level uranium enrichment had begun at the Fordo plant near Qom in northern Iran.

Tehran has said it plans to carry out uranium enrichment there for purely peaceful purposes. The West argues Iran is building a nuclear weapons capacity.

In November 2011 the IAEA released its latest report on Iran's nuclear...

"China's military is developing electromagnetic pulse weapons that Beijing plans to use against U.S. aircraft carriers in any future conflict over Taiwan, according to an intelligence report."

"Hackers in China are the world’s 'most active and persistent perpetrators' of economic cyber espionage, and Russian spy agencies are actively seeking to steal U.S. technology, according to a report released by American intelligence services on Thursday.

The 2011 report by the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive (ONCIX) included a focus on cyber threats for the first...

"Mitt Romney and Republicans are taking sharp issue with President Obama's assertion earlier this week that leftist Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez was not much a security threat to the United States."

"A week ago Ron Paul tried to convey how the ever-tightening sanctions on Iran--which may soon include an embargo on its oil--look from an Iranian point of view: It's as if China were to blockade the Gulf of Mexico, he said--'an act of war'.

This is sheer conjecture; Ron Paul is no expert on Iran. But now someone who does have relevant credentials has weighed in, and the picture he...

"RSA has traced the attack against its network, resulting in the compromise of sensitive information relating to its two-factor SecurID authentication system, to two groups, working for one nation state."

"Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has warned that missiles could be deployed on the EU's borders if the US pursues its missile defence plans. In a televised statement, he said 'modern weapons systems' could be deployed in Kaliningrad if Russia, the US and Nato failed to come to a deal."

"RSA Security is offering to provide security monitoring or replace its well-known SecurID tokens—devices used by millions of corporate workers to securely log on to their computers—'for virtually every customer we have,' the company's Chairman Art Coviello said in an interview.

In a letter to customers Monday, the EMC Corp. unit openly acknowledged for the first time that intruders had...

"Security experts say Google, along with dozens of other major companies, was the victim of a concerted espionage effort that they say came from within China and exploited flaws in e-mail attachments to get into networks of major financial and technology firms.

At least 34 companies, including Adobe, Symantec, Yahoo and Dow Chemical, were attacked, according to industry sources. On...

"Cyber attacks may not be a new phenomenon but the recent successes scored against high-profile targets including CitiGroup, Google, RSA and government contractors such as Lockheed Martin underscore the targets' current failure to block security threats enabled by the Internet. Malicious hackers use the very same technology that enables online banking, entertainment and myriad other...

"A massive advanced persistent threat (APT)-type attack campaign has been ongoing worldwide for five years that has stolen intellectual property from 70 government agencies, international corporations, nonprofits, and others in 14 countries, according to a new published report in Vanity Fair.

The so-called 'Operation Shady Rat,' which is detailed in a new report by McAfee, has mostly...

"Whether you are for or against combat drones, they're here to stay. In fact, their use will only expand. You might be disturbed by this news, but that doesn't change the reality. Even if the United States and its allies stopped using and building drones, Pandora's Box has already been opened. Fifty other nations are now developing combat drones of their own. That's what happens with useful...

"Researchers who launched an experimental cyber attack caused a generator to self-destruct, alarming the federal government and electrical industry about what might happen if such an attack were carried out on a larger scale, CNN has learned."

"The Spanish police said on Friday that they had apprehended three men suspected of computer hacking in connection with recent attacks on Sony’s PlayStation Network as well as corporate and government Web sites around the world.

The National Police identified the three as the local leadership of the shadowy international network of computer hackers known as Anonymous, which has claimed...

"More malware is now coming out of China than from any other country, according to a new report from Symantec.

The United States still leads the world in the number of malware attacks sent from mail servers. Symantec's report found U.S. mail servers responsible for distributing 36.6 percent of all global malware in March, followed by China at 17.8 percent and Romania at 16.5 percent....

"STRATCOM asked me to talk on the question: Will advanced conventional capabilities undermine or enhance deterrence.... My speech is reproduced below."

"Fears of an April Fools' Day attack by the so-called 'Conficker' worm – fears that were confirmed this week when 700 computers at the University of Utah were attacked – raised the profile of the potential for cyber-criminals to enter networks and siphon off private information."

"A nuclear weapon explodes high above the US, unleashing a deadly electromagnetic pulse (EMP) that almost instantly knocks out much of our electrical grid. The electronic control systems in our water, oil, and gas distribution systems fail, and other infrastructure such as telecommunications and transport grind to a halt. While it would be far too high up in the atmosphere (40–400 kilometers)...

"The IAEA report and annex released today provides disturbing and 'credible' additional details regarding Iranian nuclear warhead development efforts that have allowed Tehran to acquire some of the expertise needed to build nuclear weapons, should it decide to do so.

The broad outline in the IAEA’s latest report on the military dimensions of Iran’s program is not new, but rather,...

"The diplomatic ties between Iran and Venezuela go back almost fifty years and until recently amounted to little more than the routine exchange of diplomats. With the election of Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in 2005 the relationship dramatically changed. Today I believe it is fair to say they have created a flourishing partnership rooted in a shared anti-American rhetoric and policy...

"Last year, the U.S. Navy bought 59,000 microchips for use in everything from missiles to transponders and all of them turned out to be counterfeits from China.

Wired reports the chips weren't only low-quality fakes, they had been made with a 'back-door' and could have been remotely shut down at any time.

If left undiscovered the result could have rendered useless U.S. missiles...

"Following up on Newt Gingrich and his assessment of threats, I see that the New York Times has a William J. Broad front-pager on Gingrich's obsession with the possibility of adversaries using an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) against the United States...

I'm neither a security expert nor a rocket scientist. After reading Broad's article, the Space Review annalysis, the rebuttal to that...

"In one of the most egregious violations of the First Amendment's guarantee of free speech seen in quite some time, Tarek Menanna, an American Muslim, was convicted this week in a federal court in Boston and then sentenced yesterday to 17 years in prison. He was found guilty of supporting Al Qaeda (by virtue of translating Terrorists' documents into English and expressing 'sympathetic views'...

"When China’s president, Hu Jintao, visits here next week, the exchange rate between Chinese and American currency will inevitably become a big topic of conversation.

China has been holding down the value of its currency, the renminbi, for years, making Chinese exports to the United States cheaper and American exports to China more expensive. The renminbi’s recent rise has been too...

"A group calling itself Lulz Security embarked on a nihilistic hacking spree against high-profile corporations and government agencies. Yesterday morning, it was boasting of its latest coup – bringing down the websites of the Brazilian government and the president – an action marked with a Twitter message beginning 'TANGO DOWN.'"

"The route of the terrorist from childhood to a specific violent act is emerging in rich detail from new research. Researchers have found the making of a terrorist involves a unique interplay between the beliefs and dynamic of the terrorist group and the psychological makeup of its members.

The most important new data come from detailed interviews with and psychological tests of more...

"Milton Friedman once said that there is 'nothing so permanent as a temporary government program.' I would add to this: there is nothing so permanent as a war on terror. Ask the British or the Israelis or any other government which has decided to wage a similar war.

The 2001 signing of the PATRIOT Act marked the beginning of a 'temporary' and unofficial state of emergency for the...

"Pakistan and India are upgrading their Cyber War capabilities, partly by calling on allies for help. India has become a big customer of Israeli military equipment, and this now includes assistance in protecting themselves from Cyber War threats, especially from Pakistan. Meanwhile, Pakistan has found China to be a useful source of Cyber War technology. While Israel has some of the best...

"Throughout history new technologies have revolutionised warfare, sometimes abruptly, sometimes only gradually: think of the chariot, gunpowder, aircraft, radar and nuclear fission. So it has been with information technology. Computers and the internet have transformed economies and given Western armies great advantages, such as the ability to send remotely piloted aircraft across the world to...

An attack by a single Iranian nuclear missile could have a catastrophic impact on the United States by causing an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) over a portion of the country.

"On Feb. 27, a diplomatic process will begin in Geneva that could result in a new treaty giving the United Nations unprecedented powers over the Internet."

"USCYBERCOM is responsible for planning, coordinating, integrating, synchronizing, and directing activities to operate and defend the Department of Defense information networks and when directed, conducts full-spectrum military cyberspace operations (in accordance with all applicable laws and regulations) in order to ensure U.S. and allied freedom of action in cyberspace, while denying the...

"Sources have confirmed that the U.S. Department of Defense over recent months purchased 59,000 microchips to use in Navy equipment that control everything from missiles to transponders, according to report in Joseph Farah’s G2 Bulletin.

But all of the chips turned out to be cheap knock-offs from China, and they ultimately were not installed, according to sources."

"American intelligence agencies, in an unusually blunt public criticism of China and Russia, reported to Congress on Thursday that those two foreign governments steal valuable American technology over the Internet as a matter of national policy."

"China almost certainly would mount a cyberattack on the U.S. in the event of a conflict, and the U.S. has no clear policy to determine how to respond appropriately, a congressional advisory panel is set to warn on Thursday."

"U.S. intelligence spending in the past year fell to $75.4 billion, the second straight year of decline since such budgets reached their highest level in the aftermath of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, according to figures released today."

"'A quarrel in a far-away country between people of whom we know nothing.'"

"Trade sanctions are meant to destabilize regimes, forcing them to compromise with the aggressing government. Sanctions do this by threatening the regime's survivability, by undermining any support it may have amongst the population. These are the intentions of the American government, supposedly as a result of Iran's 'dangerous' nuclear program. (Ironically, sanctions may only increase the...

"While Beijing pushed for Pyongyang to open up to foreign investors, Washington announced new sanctions that would inevitably impede such plans. Beijing is concerned that North Korea’s deep economic crisis will compound the political instability surrounding any handover of power. According to the Chinese media, discussions between Kim and Chinese leaders focussed on Beijing’s demand for...

"Venezuela's President Hugo Chavez returned to Caracas last Sunday after completing a whirlwind tour of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Iran, Syria, Libya, and Portugal. Chavez's goal was to advance agreements 'to accelerate the fall of imperialist (read American) hegemony and the birth of the new world of equilibrium and peace,' as he stated in Damascus. While the rhetoric is familiar, the...

"The Venezuelan security debacle is as enlightening as it is tragic. It offers a cautionary tale about the limits of easy explanations, prescriptions, and predictions when it comes to crime. Standard narratives about high crime in Latin America put income inequality at the heart of the problem, and higher human-development levels at the core of the solution. Such assessments are not concocted...

"Followers of cancer-stricken strongman Hugo Chávez are stunned after nearly 3 million Venezuelans voted Sunday to select a unity candidate to compete in presidential elections scheduled for October. Venezuelan democrats are unified and optimistic today, but Chávez and his henchmen already have made their moves to hold on to power at all costs. If the opposition has any real hope of defeating...

"Operation Aurora, the moniker given to the attacks on Google and several others, has developed into a security nightmare and political chess game. With so many questions left unanswered, there is still no clear proof that Aurora was a government attack. In truth, public information points not to a sanctioned attack by the Chinese government, but Malware kits and criminals keeping with...

"In reality, any threat from China will take a far less antiquated [atomic bomb] form. Just as it is already a world leader in future technologies - such as solar panels - so it has invested deeply in cyberwarfare, which it routinely uses to steal sensitive industrial materials such as blueprints.

If it ever clashed with the US (and a naval conflict in the North Pacific is the most...

A meeting of the International Telecommunications Union threatened to raise new Internet regulations that could prove potentially dangerous to personal freedoms in many countries.

"Conficker, also known as Downadup or Kido, is the latest super virus to spread around the Internet and has security experts in a panic. When last we checked, about a week ago, Conficker had already spread to 9 million PCs, with little sign of slowing. Now it has infected at least 10 million PCs and experts believe there may be up to 350 million vulnerable computers out there.

The worm...

"Just consider what one single, isolated attack on American soil more than a decade ago did to Sullivan, Packer and company: the desire for violence which that one attack 11 years ago unleashed is seemingly boundless by time or intensity. Given the ongoing American quest for violence from that one-day attack, just imagine the impact which continuous attacks over the course of a full decade...

"Anonymous, understood to be a loose-knit group of internet activists, tweeted: 'We are glad to tell you that is down and it's confirmed.'

Another message read: 'There are some things WikiLeaks can't do. For everything else, there's Operation Payback.'"

"Details of a highly organized, sustained campaign of computerized attacks against businesses and governments across 14 countries were disclosed yesterday by the security company McAfee.

The attacks stretch back almost five years, and ranged in duration from one month to 28 months. They affected 32 types of organizations, including government agencies and defense, construction,...

"Consumers in the U.S. might have heard of ZTE because of a recent U.S. congressional report that called the Chinese company a national security threat."

Chart or Graph offers this very detailed infographic on 9/11 about what happened on that tragic day as well as what Americans think about the attacks today.

"Major credit cards, gaming platforms, governments, banks and news organizations have all been the victims of cyber attacks."

A graph detailing the area affected by an EMP at differing heights.

"China's concerted nuclear expansion began with the National Development and Reform Commission's (NDRC's) Tenth Economic Plan for the years 2001-2005."

"Some companies completely refuse to produce their products in or transfer their intellectual properties to countries they believe pose a threat."

The chart shows the United States having by far the most cyber-attacks, followed by China and then Germany.

An explanation of China's currency manipulation. China is paid for goods in U.S. dollars, with which China eventually buys U.S. debt, which is ultimately used to buy more Chinese goods.

This map gives us a picture of cyber-attacks by country.

The rapid growth in technology coupled with the expanding amount of information on the Internet has opened the floodgates for cyber-criminals.

"Certain countries are emerging as clear sources of threats to sensitive data, in particular to intellectual property."

"Prime Minister Vladimir Putin's popularity rose after a national televised address on December 3, curbing a 5-week slide, according to a poll by the Public Opinion Foundation."

Pakistan has received considerable Chinese and North Korean technology and other assistance for its ballistic missile program. As the title suggests, this map demonstrates how far Pakistan claims their missiles can reach.

The military branch in charge of China’s nuclear arsenal has acknowledged building a network of tunnels more than 3,000 miles long. For the past three years, a team of Georgetown University students has studied those tunnels, led by their professor, a former senior Pentagon strategist.

"When asked which country represents the greatest danger to the U.S., more Americans volunteer Iran (28%) than name any other country, though nearly as many (22%) name China."

Here's a full list of all GhostNet infections around the world.

"Here’s an updated version of our Cyber Attacks graphic showing a world map and chart illustrating targeted cyber attacks on more than 70 companies, government bodies and organizations...."

"The following graphic lists the ten most/least corrupt countries based on Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index for 2011. The Corruption Perception Index assigns countries and territories with scores between 0 (highly corrupt) and 10 (very clean)."

This timeline provides a history of some of the most famous hacking cases since the 1960s.

"Work to build a nuclear power plant at Bushehr began in 1974, but came to a halt in 1979 with the Islamic revolution."

This chart provides an overview of the types and ranges of missiles Iran possesses.

This map shows the location of various sites important to Iran's nuclear program. A heavy water plant at Arak, a nuclear power station at Bushehr, an uranium conversion plant at Isfahan, and an uranium enrichment plant at Natanz make up some of the important areas.

In just one month during 2011 American companies faced a plethora of serious cyber-attacks.

"Nearly 5 percent of North Korea’s entire population is active-duty military personnel, a rate more than double that of other Asian nations."

This image shows where a number of nuclear proliferation facilities are located in North Korea.

"North Korea was formed after WWII and the end of the Japanese occupation. It was split at the 28th parallel as part of a UN arrangement, to be administered by the US in the South ... and the the Soviet Union in the North since the two couldn’t agree on how to run it."

"In total, about 30 countries have sought nuclear weapons, and ten are known to have succeeded."

This map describes the various locations in Pakistan that relate to uranium enrichment and other nuclear processing facilities.

Moms and members of Gen-Y were given the following information on EMP's and asked to give their opinion on the likelihood of it occurring.

"Details of a highly organized, sustained campaign of computerized attacks against businesses and governments across 14 countries were the security company McAfee."

"Operation Shady RAT shares many similarities with the Operation Aurora and Night Dragon large-scale compromises also uncovered by researchers at the security firm, most notably in that Chinese hackers are again the prime suspects."

"Some hackers use software and hardware to express themselves creatively—either solving entirely novel technical challenges or finding new ways to skin the same old cats."

"[P]ublicly available information and occasional leaks make it possible to make best estimates about the size and composition of the national nuclear weapon stockpiles...."

"[S]ome believe the government is just itching to find an excuse to adopt unprecedented Internet monitoring powers, and cyber-war would be just the ticket."

"A vast electronic spying operation has infiltrated computers and has stolen documents from hundreds of government and private offices around the world, including those of the Dalai Lama, Canadian researchers have concluded."

This bar graph shows the top 10 nations which both produce and distribute as well as receive the most malware.

As of 2009, the U.S. and Russia had roughly the same number of military personnel, with about 1.5 million each. Both are sizably outnumbered by China.

"Analysis of projections made by the U.S. intelligence community during the past decade for the growth in Chinese ICBM warheads shows that they have so far been too much too soon (see figure ... [above])."

"Among those who are aware of the recent tensions between the U.S. and Iran over Iran’s nuclear program and disputes in the Persian Gulf, a majority say that it is more important to take a firm stand against Iranian actions (54%) than to avoid a military conflict with Iran (39%)."

This map shows the location of the 10 worst terrorist attacks of all time. It also includes the number of deaths and injuries in each one.

Analysis Report White Paper

"This Report sets forth the Commission’s analysis of the U.S.-China relationship in the topical areas designated by the Commission’s Congressional mandate; these are the areas the Commission is to consider, and about which it is to make recommendations to the Congress."

"The United States has done much over the last 30 years to encourage and facilitate China’s national development and its integration into the international system. However, much uncertainty surrounds China’s future course, particularly regarding how its expanding military power might be used."

"Indeed, the August test demonstrated that the direct threat to the United States posed by developing country missiles was no longer a theoretical possibility, but rather a demonstrated technical fact. Tipped with a nuclear warhead, North Korea’s missiles would inevitably change the strategic landscape."

"This juxtaposition of the activities of Iran's formal and informal foreign policy leadership illustrates the complexity of Iranian diplomacy. Both Ayatollah Rouhollah Khomeini, the regime's founder, and the current Supreme Leader have used personal envoys and trusted agents to conduct a parallel foreign policy outside the confines of the foreign ministry and beyond the oversight of the executive branch."

In the 21st century, the only viable approach to national security is to maintain an adequately sized, trained, and equipped force that is capable of dissuading, deterring, and—if necessary—defeating a diverse set of future adversaries.

While, in general terms, the asymmetrical threat concept describes how the weak might battle the strong, discussions diverge when discussing asymmetrical threats from states versus those posed by non-state actors.

This article explains Chinese military thought that supports their cyberattack activities.

Chinese strategies rely on electrons in unanticipated ways to fulfill stratagems such as 'kill with a borrowed sword' or 'exhaust the enemy at the gate and attack him at your ease.'

Written for freshmen members of Congress, the introduction states, "This briefing book attempts to provide you with the foundation to improve your knowledge of intelligence issues. The memos in this book give you important basic information about the Intelligence Community and outline the central issue."

"A series of high-profile events in 2010 and 2011 highlighted the increasing and multifaceted threat of cyberattacks."

"But Iran will reach another threshold by acquiring nuclear weapons—the ability to keep America and its allies in constant fear. For a state that has formed its national security policy largely around terrorism, that is quite an accomplishment."

"Assorted 'cyber attacks' have attracted much attention in the past few months. One headline in this genre recently proclaimed 'Anonymous Declares War on Orlando.' This is wrong on so many levels that it almost defies analysis."

"There is real risk to both the bilateral relationship and to China’s relations with the rest of the world. The issue is not war, but cyber espionage. Cyber espionage exacerbates tensions and the situation will get worse until this changes."

"On April 8, a front page article was published in the Wall Street Journal on the dangers posed by cyberspies to the U.S. electrical grid. According to senior intelligence officers who spoke with the Journal, 'Cyberspies have penetrated the U.S. electrical grid and left behind software programs that could be used to disrupt the system.'"

"The American military faces a growing threat of potentially fatal equipment failure—and even foreign espionage—because of counterfeit computer components used in warplanes, ships, and communication networks."

"The ideological and intellectual foundation for modern radical Islamism is therefore an uncompromisingly suspicious and hostile perspective regarding the nature of the relationship between an Islamic society and the West. This common thread binds all radical Islamist groups today, including the radicals within the ruling Iranian clergy."

"The cost of damage from the most extreme solar event has been estimated at $1 to $2 trillion with a recovery time of four to ten years, ... while the average yearly cost of installing equipment to mitigate an EMP event is estimated at less than 20 cents per year for the average residential customer."

"Hackers have attacked America’s defense establishment, as well as companies from Google to Morgan Stanley to security giant RSA, and fingers point to China as the culprit. The author gets an exclusive look at the raging cyber-war—Operation Aurora! Operation Shady rat!—and learns why Washington has been slow to fight back."

"The Russian cyber crime underground has evolved into a sophisticated, if loose-knit community with its own periodical literature and cultural mores. The 'Russian hacker' has become a stereotype. But as with many stereotypes, there is some truth involved."

The vulnerabilities of both civilian and military electrical devices are in need of improved protection against a potential EMP attack.

"Looking back at key events in this US‐Iran chronicle is helpful in understanding some of the traditional causes of friction and mistrust between Tehran and Washington."

The U.S. Army War College held a three-day workshop on dealing with threats, such as EMP or cyber attacks, that could impact the electrical grid, which is critical to national defense.

"With a conventional military and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) threat from Saddam Hussein’s regime removed, Iran seeks to ensure that Iraq can never again become a threat to Iran, either with or without U.S. forces present in Iraq."

"Although it is possible that negotiations between the leading powers in the international community and Iran may produce a settlement to the vexing issue of Iran's nuclear program, it is more likely that those negotiations will fail. If that happens, U.S. policymakers face a set of highly imperfect options."

"In the ensuing debate within Iranian foreign policy circles, a central question has been whether or not the new regional milieu should be considered a national security plus or minus."

"This paper describes what an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is and how a nuclear weapon creates a HEMP. Next, a brief description of the effect of a HEMP attack on electrical and electronic systems is followed by an overview of the implications of the failure of these systems on the nation’s critical infrastructure and elements of national power."

Paper examines the possibilities of a non-nuclear country developing nuclear weapons.

"The United States has long recognized the dangers inherent in the spread of nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapons, and missiles. This report, which analyzes NBC weapons programs potential threat patterns around the globe, is updated as needed."

"On January 14, 2010 McAfee Labs identified a zero-day vulnerability in Microsoft Internet Explorer that was used as an entry point for Operation Aurora to exploit Google and at least 20 other companies. Microsoft has since issued a security bulletin and patch."

"Descriptively we are still in the first decade of the post-Cold War era, but conceptually the security preoccupations are already very different from the possibilities envisaged in the first few years after the Berlin Wall was brought down."

"Today, the Obama administration still speaks of its interest in serious talks, but its Iran policy emphasizes pressure more than engagement."

This report presents the results of the Commission’s assessment of the effects of a high altitude electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack on our critical national infrastructures and provides recommendations for their mitigation.

While most argue about the technology of rogue states and also that of the missile defense system itself, this piece address the sociopolitical advances that have been made with these rogue states that will help deter them from actually attacking the United States.

"Russia and the United States have been unable to establish a common understanding in their bilateral diplomacy on most aspects of cybersecurity."

"The Kremlin is using anti-Americanism as a strategic tool for pursuing domestic and foreign policy goals. Through media controlled or owned by the state, the Russian government is deliberately spreading poisonous anti-U.S. propaganda at home and abroad, blaming many of Russia's problems on the West, particularly the United States."

"The U.S. officially designates four countries as state sponsors of terrorism--Iran, Syria, Cuba, and Sudan. It is high time to add Venezuela to the list."

"The United States, as the world's strongest economy and also the most technically advanced, is the center of the world's research and development and, therefore, the principle target of this new wave of economic espionage."

Space warfare will be an integrated part of battle planning by the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) in any future conflict.

"To better understand the roots and threat of militant Islam, here's a closer look at how modern terrorism has evolved in the Middle East and South Asia."

Margolis argues that North Korea was a much larger threat to U.S. security than Iraq.

"The purpose of this report is two-fold: 1. To present an assessment of the state of economic crime in the United States, and; 2. Based on that assessment, to indicate areas where additional research, legislative action, training, cooperation between law enforcement and industry, and international cooperation are required."

"Latin America is often near the bottom of U.S counter-terrorism priorities. No terrorist attacks against the United States have originated from there or been carried out by Latin American nationals. Yet there are several reasons that recent trends in Latin America pose significant threats to the United States."

This article addresses three aspects of the civilian and military use of China’s Internet.

"By outsourcing some aspects of operations, U.S. businesses and multinational corporations have been able to increase the amount of value built into products compared to the same dollars expended domestically and have further been able to diversify market holdings in Asia after reaching saturation points in U.S. and European markets."

"The 1979 Islamic Revolution brought a radical, theocratic regime to power in Iran. The government's extremist rhetoric incited fear throughout the region and even the West. Nevertheless, Iran found itself severely isolated on the international scene and unable to effectively pursue its goal of preeminence in the Persian Gulf."

"Computer network exploitation represents the leading edge of signals intelligence in the information age. The proliferation of computer systems throughout governments, businesses, and civic organizations represents a boon for would-be cyber spies."

"As we face one of the worst recessions in recent memory, protecting a company’s critical information assets like intellectual property and sensitive data has never been more important, yet challenging. A single breach or loss can cause irreparable financial damage to a company’s reputation, its share price and customer confidence."

"While some observers are hopeful that the return of ambassadors will mark an improvement in relations, others emphasize continued U.S. concerns about the Venezuelan government’s treatment of the news media and political opposition and about interference in the affairs of other countries in the region."

"In an assessment on Global Water Security, U.S. Intelligence Community predicts that exploding populations in developing countries coupled with climate change would be naturally transformed into drought, floods and lack of fresh water."


"The United Nations nuclear watchdog, the International Atomic Energy Agency, has offered its strongest evidence yet that Iran is seeking to develop nuclear weapons. Iran condemned the report, and maintains that its nuclear program is entirely peaceful."

"In the past decade, Iran has increased its influence in Latin America. Considering Iran’s long history of bad actions, this increased activity in the Western Hemisphere should give Americans pause. This year alone, Iran refused to abandon its nuclear ambitions, its military sat idly by as Iranian students stormed a British embassy, it attempted to assassinate a Saudi ambassador in Washington...

This podcast weighs the pros and cons of American foreign policy toward Iran, discussing whether or not a full-blown attack or a policy of deterrence would be a wiser path to tread.

This podcast discusses the strained relationship between Russia and the United States. Carpenter declares, "it's important to recognize that the United States and Russia have a lot of interests in common." Carpenter goes on to explain Russia's important role in deterring the Iranian missile program, as well as many other areas where the U.S. would benefit from a positive relationship with...

"Venezuela's caudillo [strongman] President Hugo Chavez has his sights set on an extended stay in executive office well beyond the possibilities of even a second Obama Administration. Like his hero Fidel Castro, Chavez aspires to remain a thorn in the side for multiple U.S. presidents. With his Bolivarian Revolution and 'socialism for the 21st Century,' Chavez has harnessed Venezuela's...

This presentation describes Iran's connection to various Latin American countries such as Venezuela. The speakers discuss the Iranian nuclear threat and how Iranian interaction with other countries could affect the nation's nuclear progress.

"National Security Agency whistle blowers Thomas Drake, former senior official; Kirk Wiebe, former senior analyst; and William Binney, former technical director, return to 'Viewpoint' to talk about their allegations that the NSA has conducted illegal domestic surveillance. All three men are providing evidence in a lawsuit by the Electronic Frontier Foundation against the NSA.

Drake says...

"Charlie Rose and Erica Hill speak with Steve Kroft about a cyber attack that crippled the Iranian nuclear program for a time."

"Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad addressed the United Nation's General Assembly.

Delegates from the US, Israel and EU stormed out as Iran's leader was speaking."

"Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez pledged closer cooperation on Monday, vowing to fight poverty and imperialism.

The two leaders signed a series of accords in the areas of industry, science, technology and politics, the state-run AVN news agency reported. Sitting side by side in front of a room full of reporters, they presented a united front in...

"Acclaimed writer and political scholar Christopher Hitchens may just be the only writer to have recently visited Iran, Iraq and North Korea. Hitchens - known for his keen wit, sharp political insight and often controversial opinions - examines the differences between the countries once linked as the 'axis of evil,' while revealing intriguing connections between the nations."

"In this address, Bruce examined the future of cyber war and cyber security. Mr. Schneier explored the current debate on the threat of cyber war, asking whether or not the threat had been over-stated. He then explored the range of attacks that have taken place, including the Latvian DOS attack and the Stuxnet worm. The address concluded with an exploration of the future of international...

Sen. Wyden (OR-R) and the Senate Intelligence Committee, ask an intelligence panel about Iran's nuclear threat and U.S. terrorists threats, particularly with regard to the theft of 'intellectual property' and 'economic secrets.' Bottom line: US. must expand intelligence and military agency policies to prevent 'corporate espionage.'

In late 2011, the Asian Arms Control Project at Georgetown University released a report on the nature of China's underground tunnels. Declaring these tunnels to be a "key component of ... [China's] burgeoning nuclear deterrence infrastructure," this video uses a variety of Chinese video footage to explain the historical development of the tunnels and China's missile program.

A panel of experts discuss the state of cyber-security in the United States and certain measures that may be taken to improve the system. At time 1:18:00 the discussion becomes especially relevant.

"The U.S. government is about to declare a new war, but this time the enemy is a virtual one. A string of attacks on government websites by hackers has driven American policy-makers into a state of high-alert over a so-called terrorist threat. But some doubt the danger even exists, as RT's Lucy Kafanov reports."

Analyst Marko Papic explains two separate statements made Wednesday that give Russia momentum against U.S. plans for ballistic missile defense in Europe.

This propaganda film celebrates the achievements, technological advancement and physical fitness of the North Korean army. It paints the United States as an imperialist aggressor against which North Korea has had to defend itself. The film also extols the role of the army in building and supporting socialism in the economic, social and cultural spheres in order to achieve "the people's...

"On September 20th Hugo Chevas gave a speech at the United Nation. The title of the speech was 'Rise Up Against the Empire'."

"Iran has test-fired a surface-to-surface cruise missile in a naval drill, after the country threatened to close the strategic Strait of Hormuz, the passageway for 40 per cent of the world's oil supply, if sanctions were imposed on its crude exports."

This video is a recording of the House of Representatives' Oversight Committee's hearing on November 7, 2007 which focused on Iran's nuclear program and possible U.S. responses to this program.

"Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Venezuela's Hugo Chavez mocked US [for] its move to expel a Venezuelan diplomat at the start of a visit to four left-leaning Latin American nations."

"In an attempt to display his statesmanship potential, Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney wades into deep foreign policy waters discussing Iraq, North Korea and Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin."

Explore what could happen when a high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) occurs and cripples our electrical grid.

On May 25, 2009, North Korea announced that it had successfully conducted its second nuclear test, having expelled all international nuclear inspectors as a response to a tightening of sanctions by the UN Security Council.

President Obama unveils his new plan to fight cyber-crime. At time 09:35 he announces his plan for CYBERCOM, a new branch of the Defense Department that will be solely devoted to combating cyber-warfare and intellectual property theft.

"Professor Howard Schmidt, ISF President and one time security adviser to the White House discusses how and why corporate espionage is taking place."

"The Russian military says it has successfully tested the world's most powerful non-nuclear bomb. The device is said to be as potent as an atomic explosion, but without radioactive fallout. Until now, the U.S. had the most powerful vacuum bomb, which was tested in 2003."

"Iran, Syria, Venezuela, China, India, United Arab Emirates and several other countries have shown interest in Club-K. Though a powerful and dangerous weapon, Club-K is quite expensive ($10-20 million/shipping crate) and therefore more easily kept out of the hands of smaller and more belligerent terrorist groups (unless they are state-sponsored, as some are). This is the Club-K promotional...

"Russia has announced the development of a stand-alone nuclear warhead capable of penetrating any existing or projecting missile defense system. The revelation comes just as the Russian government has ratified the START nuclear arms reduction treaty."

This video shows a nuclear warhead detonating above the earth's atmosphere.

CNN offers a brief video demonstrating the devastating effects a cyber-attack could have on America's electrical grid.

What can the Stuxnet worm accomplish? Who can use it? Does it threaten Americans?

Cato Institute Vice President for Defense and Foreign Policy Studies Ted Galen Carpenter evaluated the U.S./China relationship during Policy Day held May 14, 2010.

In this interview, Maseh Zarif explains why containing and deterring Iran is an expensive and difficult course of action for the United States to pursue.

Primary Document

Annual Address to the Federal Assembly by Russian President Vladimir Putin. Putin outlines goals for the country in the years ahead and reassures previous national goals.

This document from the State Department details some major facts on North Korea, including information on population, geography, and economics.

This paper presents a comprehensive open source assessment of China’s capability to conduct computer network operations (CNO) both during peacetime and periods of conflict.

The appropriate response to the EMP threat is a balance of prevention, planning, training, maintaining situational awareness, protection, and preparations for recovery.

This report presents the results of the Commission's assessment of the effects of a high altitude electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack on our critical national infrastructures and provides recommendations for their mitigation.

Dr. Tafoya defines cyber-terrorism and cyber-warfare, detailing the tactics used and the preventative measures the U.S. government takes to avoid such attacks.

"Cyberwarfare raises issues of growing national interest and concern. Cyberwarfare can be used to describe various aspects of defending and attacking information and computer networks in cyberspace, as well as denying an adversary's ability to do the same. Some major problems encountered with cyber attacks, in particular, are the difficulty in determining the origin and nature of the attack...

This handout outlines the goals and strategies of the Department of Defense in 2010.

"The Administration continues to invest in the Nation’s military servicemembers and their families and provides them with the training, equipment, and infrastructure needed to maintain military readiness. The President's 2012 Budget for the Department of Defense (DOD) reflects that commitment, proposing $553 billion - an increase of $22 billion above the 2010 appropriation."

This act intends to protect American government and businesses from any intellectual property theft or espionage.

"Amends the Federal Power Act to direct the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to issue rules or orders to protect critical electric infrastructure from cyber security vulnerabilities."

"The House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (herein referred to as 'the Committee') initiated this investigation in November 2011 to inquire into the counterintelligence and security threat posed by Chinese telecommunications companies doing business in the United States."

"This National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) assesses the status of Iran’s nuclear program, and the program’s outlook over the next 10 years. This time frame is more appropriate for estimating capabilities than intentions and foreign reactions, which are more difficult to estimate over a decade. In presenting the Intelligence Community’s assessment of Iranian nuclear...

"The Obama Administration has not changed the Bush Administration’s characterization of Iran as a 'profound threat to U.S. national security interests,' a perception generated not only by Iran’s nuclear program but also by its military assistance to armed groups in Iraq and Afghanistan, to the Palestinian group Hamas, and to Lebanese Hezbollah. In its first year,...

"U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder's announcement on Oct. 11 that a dual U.S.-Iranian citizen and a commander in Iran's Quds Force, the special-operations unit of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), had been charged in New York for their alleged roles in a plot to murder the Saudi ambassador to the United States, Adel al-Jubeir, represents a brazen escalation in Iran's struggle for...

China has made great progress in its pursuit of economic growth and development, which has allowed China to achieve higher living standards for the Chinese people and has increased China’s international profile.

"The Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation (hereinafter the Military Doctrine) is one of the fundamental strategic planning documents in the Russian Federation and constitutes a system of the views officially adopted in the state on preparations for armed defense and on the armed protection of the Russian Federation."

To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2012 for military activities of the Department of Defense, for military construction, and for defense activities of the Department of Energy, to prescribe military personnel strengths for such fiscal year....

This piece of legislation is cited as "AN ACT To promote the national security by providing for a Secretary of Defense; for a National Military Establishment; for a Department of the Army, a Department of the Navy, and a Department of the Air Force; and for the coordination of the activities of the National Military Establishment with other departments and agencies...

"North Korea has been among the most vexing and persistent problems in U.S. foreign policy in the post-cold war period. The United States has never had formal diplomatic relations with the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (the official name for North Korea). Negotiations over North Korea’s nuclear weapons program have consumed the past three U.S. administrations, even as some analysts...

"The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) was opened for signature in 1968, and has nearly 190 Parties. The Treaty comprises legally binding non-proliferation commitments and is the basis for international cooperation on stopping the spread of nuclear weapons. The President in Prague on April 5 said that the basic bargain at the core of the Treaty is sound: 'countries with...

"At the dawn of the 21st Century, the United States now faces what could be called a Superpower Paradox. Our unrivaled supremacy in the conventional military arena is prompting adversaries to seek unconventional, asymmetric means to strike what they perceive as our Achilles heel.

At least 25 countries now possess—or are in the process of acquiring and developing—capabilities to inflict...

This is the sister bill of SOPA.

"Threats against the United States and Israel by Iranian President Ahmadinejad – coupled with advances in the Iranian nuclear weapons program, support for terror, and resistance to international negotiations on its nuclear program – demonstrate that Iran is a security threat to our nation that requires high caliber intelligence support. The seriousness of the Iranian threat has been amplified...

This site provides an extensive archive of the speeches delivered at the Democratic National Convention of 2008, sorted by speaker or topic.

The stated intention of this act was to protect intellectual property through increased governmental regulation of the Internet. It has not yet passed into law.

"Last month I convened an emergency meeting of my cabinet and top homeland security, intelligence and defense officials. Across the country trains had derailed, including one carrying industrial chemicals that exploded into a toxic cloud. Water treatment plants in several states had shut down, contaminating drinking water and causing Americans to fall ill.

Our nation, it appeared, was...

"During the Carter administration, Congress passed the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, which created a new federal court to approve electronic surveillance of citizens and resident aliens alleged to be acting on behalf of a foreign power. Until now, the FISA court granted surveillance authority if foreign intelligence was the primary purpose of an...

"The cyber environment provides unprecedented opportunities for adversarial activities and is particularly vulnerable because of the nation's heavy reliance on information systems. A strong and well-protected U.S. information infrastructure is critical to virtually every aspect of maintaining our nation's security. Trusted insiders as well as external adversaries are targeting the U.S....

"A BILL To amend the Federal Power Act to protect the bulk-power system and electric infrastructure critical to the defense and well-being of the United States against natural and manmade electromagnetic pulse ('EMP') threats and vulnerabilities."

"The emergence of amorphous and largely unknown terrorist individuals and groups operating independently (freelancers) and the new recruitment patterns of some groups, such as recruiting suicide commandos, female and child terrorists, and scientists capable of developing weapons of mass destruction, provide a measure of urgency to increasing our understanding of the psychological and...

"Chairman Chaffetz, Chairman Mack, Chairman Chabot, Ranking Member Tierney, Ranking Member Engel, Ranking Member Ackerman, distinguished members of the committees, thank you for the opportunity to appear before you today to discuss Venezuela’s sanctionable activities."

One of the most important actions you and your colleagues can take to help us protect our intellectual property rights in China is to continue to call attention to the Chinese authorities that you consider the theft of US intellectual property a high priority.



Could cyber-attacks be used to cause physical damage? What other vulnerabilities might be exploited in a cyber-attack? Could an attack disrupt infrastructure such as power grids? All these questions and more are answered in the FAQ below.

Is the threat of an EMP a legitimate concern? What kind of infrastructural damage is an EMP capable of? How long would the consequences of such an attack last? All these questions and more will be answered in this FAQ.

One of the most serious threats to national security, individual privacy, and protection of one's assets comes from Intellectual Property (I.P.) espionage. What kind of information may be stolen? Who is or has the capability of engaging in effective I.P. espionage? Has this already happened? What can the United States do? All these questions and more are answered in this FAQ.

Iran has been talked about for decades. Relations between Iran and the United States have been tense since the early 1950s. Some believe that Iran poses an existential threat to the U.S.; others maintain that, despite its rhetoric, it is mostly harmless. Does Iran pose a significant threat? What are the sentiments of its leaders and its citizens? Do they agree? Is Iran working on a...

Missile defense. It's been talked about for decades, some of us even grew up watching Patriot missiles shoot down Iraqi Scud missiles in the first Gulf War. But where do things stand today? Is it still needed? Should I care? Those questions and more are answered in the FAQ below.