Federal Expenditures on Early Childhood Education
"Table 1 presents estimated and projected expenditures for the major federal early childhood programs. Although our projections are rough estimates, it is clear that there has been a substantial infusion of public funds between 2008 and 2011, some of it through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). ... Although much of the ARRA funding has been spent, the Congressional Budget Office indicates that some child care funds will be spent after 2011. Our projections for 2011 also include increases in the president’s 2011 proposed budget, though we do not know as of this writing that Congress will approve the continued funding (we did not include the Early Learning Challenge Grants which appear unlikely to be funded). Early Head Start, Head Start, child care, and home visitation are likely to have received substantial permanent increases by 2011. Preschool special education and early intervention are not expected to receive a permanent increase. It appears that total federal spending across all these programs could rise from just over $17 billion to over $21 billion, an increase of $4.6 billion from 2008 to 2011, not including the increase in tax credits which could add another $2.2 billion. ... State and local governments provide additional support for early childhood programs, much of it for children with special needs as federal expenditures for preschool special education and early intervention cover only a small fraction of the costs of these programs. ... State and local expenditures for pre-K passed $5.7 billion by 2009, up $500 million from 2008, but are not expected to increase appreciably through 2011. ... State expenditure on child care for children under age 5 is estimated to add at least another $2 billion annually. ... Thus, total federal and state spending on preschool programs and child care is likely to exceed $31 billion in 2011."