Spalding traces the roots of American progressives to German thinkers who believed in the "Administrative State." Here, government is controlled by administrators and "experts," rather than officials elected to represent the people. Spalding also notes that the Founders and the progressives differed in their view of the Constitution. Progressives believed in a "...
Real Per Capita Federal Expenditures: 1792-2004
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, 88(1)
"The history of real (2000 dollars) federal government expenditures per capita from 1792 to 2004 is shown in Figure 1."