Spalding traces the roots of American progressives to German thinkers who believed in the "Administrative State." Here, government is controlled by administrators and "experts," rather than officials elected to represent the people. Spalding also notes that the Founders and the progressives differed in their view of the Constitution. Progressives believed in a "...
Social and Economic Regulatory Budget Dollar Increase per Presidential Term (1960 -2009): Constant Dollars
"Figure 3 shows the real dollar increase in social and economic regulatory spending by presidential term between 1960 and 2009. Only full-term presidents are represented in this chart. During both his terms, President Bush outspent his predecessors on social and economic regulatory agencies. During his first term, he increased spending on social regulatory agencies by $7.6 billion, almost doubling what President Clinton spent on these agencies during his second term. With a decrease of $535 million, only President Reagan, during his first term, reduced spending on social regulatory activities.
Spending on economic regulatory activities is historically smaller than on social regulatory ones. However, here too, President Bush outspent his predecessors during his second term with a $1.1 billion real spending increase. His father gets the second highest dollar increase with an $880 million real increase."