To Whom Does the U.S. Government Really Owe Money

Craig Eyermann
May 11, 2011

"Back in January, we featured a post where we looked at who are the largest holders of the U.S. national debt. Since that time, the U.S. Treasury has revised their data, specifically to identify who the real foreign owners of the U.S. national debt are. Here are how things really stood at the end of the U.S. government's 2010 fiscal year on September 30, 2010:

The main differences from the chart we previously featured are that China's holdings are much greater, while the United Kingdom's holdings are much smaller, which is a result of a number of Chinese institutions using banks in the United Kingdom as intermediaries for purchasing and holding U.S. government-issued debt. As a result, China's real U.S. debt holdings now account for 9.5% of the entire U.S. national debt outstanding (nearly 1 out of every 10 dollars the U.S. government has borrowed), instead of the 7.5% that was previously recorded."

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Since the Communist Party gained power in China and established the People’s Republic of China in 1949, authoritarian rule has been the norm.

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Robert Kaplan discusses the topic of his article in the May/June 2010 issue of Foreign Affairs, the geography of China and the rise of its navy.

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China’s economy is the world’s second biggest, with a $5.8 trillion gross domestic product that eclipsed Japan in 2010. Will China pass the United States? When?

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The People’s Republic of China (PRC) maintains the world’s largest military force, based on its manpower.

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"For at least five years, a high-level hacking campaign—dubbed Operation Shady rat—has infiltrated the computer systems of national governments, global corporations, nonprofits, and other organizations, with more than 70 victims in 14 countries. Lifted from these highly secure servers, among other sensitive property: countless government secrets, e-mail archives, legal contracts, and design...

"As the fastest growing global super-power, China commands attention by all the super-powers and especially by the middle powers all over the world. Pundits ask whether Islamic Banking, which China looks upon favorably, will be a new challenge to Wall Street. Islamic banking will not pose a quantitative challenge in terms of nominal assets during our lifetime, but it has the potential to...

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"The following graphic lists the ten most/least corrupt countries based on Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index for 2011. The Corruption Perception Index assigns countries and territories with scores between 0 (highly corrupt) and 10 (very clean). New Zealand tops the list as the least corrupt country, while North Korea and Somalia are all the way at the bottom."

"Google moved quickly to announce that it would stop censoring its Chinese ­service after realising dissidents were at risk from attempts to use the company's technology for political ­surveillance, according to a source with direct ­knowledge of the internet giant's most senior management.

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"Once subtle in the making, we are watching the unfolding of a dramatic shift in international politics."

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"The U.S. debt was more than $14.3 trillion during the so-called debt crisis of 2011, when the level of borrowing reached its statutory limit and the president warned of a potential default if the cap wasn't raised.

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"India is being pulled into a complex and increasingly tense territorial dispute in the South China Sea, with China repeatedly warning ONGC, the Indian state oil company, that its joint exploration plans with Vietnam amount to a violation of Chinese sovereignty."

"China is the future, as you may have heard. But that future has not quite yet arrived. And the fact is, in 20 years China won't be quite like any country in the West -- no matter how China evolves, it's not going to be some neophyte version of a stable Western country. It'll be a behemoth quite unlike any other developed nation in the world."

Take a look at how China tries to wage a "war on the dollar," and why they might be doing this.

"INS encouraged relatively free and open immigration during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and did not question that policy until the late 1830s. After certain states passed immigration laws following the Civil War, the Supreme Court in 1875 declared that regulation of immigration is a Federal responsibility. Thus, as the number of immigrants rose in the 1880s and economic...

"The impending cyber threat requires the immediate attention of Congress, according to a top intelligence official who singled out China, Russia and a failure of policy keeping up with the speed of technology as top threats to the nation’s critical networks."

"As China's economy and exchanges with the world have seen rapid growth, there has also been a sharp increase in the world's demands for Chinese learning. Benefiting from the UK, France, Germany and Spain's experience in promoting their national languages, China began its own exploration through establishing non-profit public institutions which aim to promote Chinese language and culture in...

"The foundation of Iran’s nuclear program can be traced to extensive Chinese and Russian cooperation in the 1990s, according to a former U.S. intelligence official who specialized on Tehran’s program."

"As has been widely reported, Mallesons partners voted last Wednesday to approve the merger with Chinese firm King & Wood. Not that we thought they’d do otherwise, despite our controversial editorial to the contrary."

"The Cold War taught us that inefficient planned economies can execute priority projects well. Think Sputnik, the Moscow Olympics, and Russian nuclear physics. Although its output never reached half that of the U.S., the Soviet Union held us to rough military parity until the end of the Cold War. China will choose a new leadership in 2012, culminating a power struggle between reformists and...

It may seem like the country that used to make everything is on the brink of making nothing. In January, 207,000 U.S. manufacturing jobs vanished in the largest one-month drop since October 1982 (see chart above).

"An electronic spy network, based mainly in China, has infiltrated computers from government offices around the world, Canadian researchers say.

They said the network had infiltrated 1,295 computers in 103 countries."

"The cyberattacks on Google and 30 other companies were the most sophisticated in years, according to the computer security company's CTO."

"The call to get tough with China came as Xi Jinping, the Chinese leader-in-waiting and the man Mr Romney would deal with if he elected in November, made a high-profile visit to the US.

'We can't base our policy on some theory about how we might be able to influence what goes on in China. We have to base it on the balance of power and what our interests are,' said Aaron Friedberg, a...

As the commander in chief of the massive People’s Liberation Army (PLA), President Hu Jintao plans to reinforce his leadership with his mandate to stamp out corruption among the force’s ranks.

"The economy is not producing nearly enough jobs to replace the ones that are being lost to a cheaper workforce overseas."

"A New Jersey man who allegedly misappropriated sensitive military technology and exported it to China was arrested by federal agents on Tuesday.

Sixing Liu, a 47-year-old Chinese-born permanent resident of the U.S., was charged with one count of exporting defense-related technical data without a license."

"An exclusive preview of an economic report on China, prepared by the World Bank and government insiders considered to have the ear of the nation's leaders, offers a surprising prescription: China could face an economic crisis unless it implements deep reforms, including scaling back its vast state-owned enterprises and making them operate more like commercial firms."

"In the latest step in its naval modernization and expansion, China recently announced that it is accelerating serial production of an advanced destroyer. This will tilt the regional balance of power at sea in its favor and put it in a stronger position to enforce its sovereignty claims over Taiwan and in the South and East China Seas."

"Newt Gingrich isn’t the only politician who’s freaked out by China and Russia’s online spying. But the new Republican presidential frontrunner may be the highest-profile political figure all but openly calling for cyberwar with Moscow and Beijing.

'I think that we have to treat state-based covert activities as the equivalent of acts of war,' Gingrich said in response to a question...

"For decades, Beijing has maintained that the Dalai Lama is a separatist, but Tibet's exiled spiritual leader once had a special relationship with the father of Xi Jinping, the man in line to become China's next president.

Few people know what Xi, whose ascent to the leadership is likely to be approved at a Communist Party congress later this year, thinks of Tibet or the Dalai Lama....

"The ability to visit a foreign country without the cost and hassle of obtaining a visa is a welcome bonus for any traveller. It is also a barometer of a country's international alliances and relations. A report released on August 25th by Henley & Partners, a consultancy, shows that Britons have the fewest visa restrictions of the 190-odd countries (and territories) for which data are...

"Only the Chinese government knows how many nuclear weapons China has. As in most other nuclear weapon states, the number is a closely held secret. Even so, it is possible to make best estimates of the approximate size that benefit the public debate.

A recent example of how not to make an estimate is the study recently published by the Asia Arms Control Project at Georgetown University...

"President Obama announced Tuesday the creation of a Trade Enforcement Unit, singling out China as a country that has had an unfair advantage over American competitors and requires more scrutiny."

"President Barack Obama declared Thursday that the United States will take an expanded role in shaping the Asian Pacific region, with an increased military presence one step of that policy.

'Our enduring interests in the region demand our enduring presence in this region,' Obama said in a speech to the Australian Parliament. 'The United States is a Pacific power, and we are here to stay...

"While there are numerous challenges for President Obama to tackle in his next administration, China does not have to be one of them."

"Asia's return to the center of world affairs is the great power shift of the twenty-first century. In 1750, Asia had roughly three-fifths of the world's population and accounted for three-fifths of global output. By 1900, after the Industrial Revolution in Europe and America, Asia's share of global output had shrunk to one-fifth. By 2050, Asia will be well on its way back to where it was 300...

In his State of the Union address, President Barack Obama urged Americans and Congress to embrace this generation’s Sputnik moment and spend more on technology and innovation to spur economic growth.

"Hackers who appear to be based in China have conducted a 'coordinated, covert and targeted' campaign of cyber espionage against major Western energy firms, according to a report expected to be issued Thursday by cybersecurity firm McAfee Inc."

"For decades, American manufacturers of everything from blue jeans to semiconductors have searched the world for the cheapest labor they could find.

It may have cost hundreds of thousands of American jobs, but it's made American products more affordable. Now, some of the most familiar companies -ones we deal with every day - are moving a whole new class of jobs overseas.


"Americans encouraged relatively free and open immigration during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and did not question that policy until the late 1800s. After certain states passed immigration laws following the Civil War, the Supreme Court in 1875 declared that regulation of immigration is a Federal responsibility. Thus, as the number of immigrants rose in the 1880s and...

U.S. intelligence agencies estimate it could take Beijing at least two more years 'to produce a modern force capable of defeating a moderate-size adversary.'

"The president of the Philippines made a direct pitch to the White House Friday to help bolster his country's relatively weak defenses as the island nation increasingly finds itself tangled in territorial conflicts with China."

"This weekend, leaders from the United States and China will gather in Cambridge to examine challenges facing the financial sectors of the two countries."

"India's massive power outages last week shocked many people who thought that India was on course to become a new economic super power, like China, where such outages are unheard of. NPR's Julie McCarthy and Frank Langfitt join guest host Linda Wertheimer to discuss attitudes toward infrastructure in the two emerging economies."

"As the 2012 State of the Union approaches, the public continues to give the highest priority to economic issues. Fully 86% say that strengthening the economy should be a top priority for the president and Congress this year, and 82% rate improving the job situation as a top priority. None of the other 20 issues tested in this annual survey rate as a top priority for more than 70% of Americans...

"U.S. economic growth picked up in the third quarter, boosted by stronger consumer spending, an improving housing sector and increased defense spending."

"The announcement that China's Cnooc Ltd. intends to buy Canadian energy producer Nexen for $15.1 billion invites many questions. One surprisingly likely to be overlooked is whether this deal makes business sense for China. To get the ball rolling, we'll start with something more basic still: Why does Cnooc exist?"

On May 17th, after four years of research, the Conference Board, a research group, unveiled a new monthly index of leading indicators, which aims to foretell China’s immediate economic future.

"A WEEK before President Hu Jintao's visit to America on January 18th the appearance of a giant bronze statue of Confucius on the east side of Tiananmen Square caused a stir in the Chinese capital. He is the first non-revolutionary to be commemorated on the hallowed ground of Chinese communism. The party, having once vilified the ancient sage, now depends on him in its attempts at global...

"A decade after its entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO), China has become the United States' fastest-growing export market and one of the nation's largest trading partners. The past ten years have witnessed significant progress in China, including strengthening its global cooperation, enhancing its integration into the world economy, and rapidly increasing its participation in...

"Someday, U.S. economic dominance will be a distant memory. A new report is showing just how soon that might be."

"Hackers in China are the world’s 'most active and persistent perpetrators' of economic cyber espionage, and Russian spy agencies are actively seeking to steal U.S. technology, according to a report released by American intelligence services on Thursday.

The 2011 report by the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive (ONCIX) included a focus on cyber threats for the first...

"By one well-known (if fictitious) criterion, the purpose of a space programme is to boldly go where no man has gone before. China, however, has a different plan: to boldly go back where men have already been. Specifically, with the release on December 29th of an official space-policy paper, it has said it wants to send people to the moon."

"RSA has traced the attack against its network, resulting in the compromise of sensitive information relating to its two-factor SecurID authentication system, to two groups, working for one nation state."

"The Middle East is undergoing a historic transformation. Parts of the region are up in flames, and Asia's primary powers either have no role or a destructive one."

"It was the week before Christmas, and D.A. Henderson was alarmed about germs. He isn't easily rattled: Dr. Henderson led the successful worldwide effort to eradicate smallpox in the 1970s, and he directed the U.S. Office of Public Health Emergency Preparedness after the deadly anthrax letter attacks and the destruction of the World Trade Center in 2001. But recently not just one but two...

"China's efforts to assert its claims to the disputed South China Sea got a boost as regional talks to resolve the issue broke down despite U.S. support, even as Beijing made fresh moves that underscore its increasing presence in the region."

"Security experts say Google, along with dozens of other major companies, was the victim of a concerted espionage effort that they say came from within China and exploited flaws in e-mail attachments to get into networks of major financial and technology firms.

At least 34 companies, including Adobe, Symantec, Yahoo and Dow Chemical, were attacked, according to industry sources. On...

"In a rare bipartisan vote, the Senate on Monday voted 79 to 19 to take up a bill that would punish China for manipulating its currency, risking a potential trade war with the economic giant.

Though prospects for the bill in the House are seen as uncertain, jobs lost due to competition with China is a blistering issue for voters, especially in the nation’s industrial heartland.


"A massive advanced persistent threat (APT)-type attack campaign has been ongoing worldwide for five years that has stolen intellectual property from 70 government agencies, international corporations, nonprofits, and others in 14 countries, according to a new published report in Vanity Fair.

The so-called 'Operation Shady Rat,' which is detailed in a new report by McAfee, has mostly...

"On Thursday, the U.S. Commerce Department issued a preliminary decision levying steep tariffs against Chinese solar manufacturers, finding they illegally dumped cheap photovoltaic cells on the American market."

"The solar trade war heated up Thursday when China's Commerce Ministry published a preliminary finding that state renewable energy polices in the U.S. violate free-trade regulations."

"From democratic Mongolia to once-hostile Vietnam and long-isolated Laos, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton this week faced governments eager to embrace the United States as a strategic counterweight to China's expanding military and economic dominance of the region, while still lukewarm about American demands for greater democracy and rule of law."

"The U.S. Department of State is backing down from its insistence that 600 Chinese-language schoolteachers affiliated with university-based Confucius Institutes leave the country by the end of June because of visa problems. ...

The State Department issued a policy directive a week ago to the roughly 80 American universities that host Confucius Institutes, the Chinese-government-...

"More than a decade and a half after the Cold War ended, the world's combined stockpile of nuclear warheads remain at a very high level: more than 20,500. Of these, some 4,800 warheads are considered operational, of which nearly 2,000 U.S. and Russian warheads are on high alert, ready for use on short notice."

"More malware is now coming out of China than from any other country, according to a new report from Symantec.

The United States still leads the world in the number of malware attacks sent from mail servers. Symantec's report found U.S. mail servers responsible for distributing 36.6 percent of all global malware in March, followed by China at 17.8 percent and Romania at 16.5 percent....

This article reports on the aerial attacks ending a nominal truce in the Syrian conflict. Different international views on the Syrian regime have kept the U.N. from imposing tougher sanctions on the region.

"Tensions between China and other nations bordering the South China Sea are escalating, with the oil and gas resources that lie beneath those waters playing a central role."

"Throughout the nineteenth century, China's emperors had watched as foreigners encroached further and further upon their land. Time and again, foreigners forced China to make humiliating concessions. Foreign regiments, armed with modern weapons, consistently defeated entire imperial armies. Now, as a new century was about to begin, Tsu Hsi, empress dowager of the Ch'ing Dynasty, searched for a...

This brief article describes the events of the Boxer Rebellion and the role the United States played in it.

"China may have no intentions of using its growing military might, but that is of little comfort for Western countries. From the World Trade Organization to the United Nations, Beijing is happy to use its soft power to get what it wants -- and it is wrong-footing the West at every turn."

"AT A meeting of South-East Asian nations in 2010, China's foreign minister Yang Jiechi, facing a barrage of complaints about his country's behaviour in the region, blurted out the sort of thing polite leaders usually prefer to leave unsaid. 'China is a big country,' he pointed out, 'and other countries are small countries and that is just a fact.' Indeed it is, and China is big not merely in terms of territory and population, but also military might."

"IF EVER a clash was inevitable between one country's commercial law and another's business culture, it would be between America's Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), which seeks to punish firms that bribe government officials, and China, where many businesses are owned by the government and bribery is endemic."

"The International Finance Corporation (IFC), the private sector arm of the World Bank Group, has signed an agreement with ACCION International, a US-based nonprofit organization, to invest USD 1 million in ACCION’s Chinese affiliate, ACCION Microfinance China (AMC). The investment will enable AMC to expand financial services in its primary region of operation, inner Mongolia, with loans...

"China's navy appears on the verge of creating a new class of warship. It could eventually alter the balance of naval power in the region."

"Last year, the U.S. Navy bought 59,000 microchips for use in everything from missiles to transponders and all of them turned out to be counterfeits from China.

Wired reports the chips weren't only low-quality fakes, they had been made with a 'back-door' and could have been remotely shut down at any time.

If left undiscovered the result could have rendered useless U.S. missiles...

"'The week that changed the world,' as President Nixon called his historic 1972 visit to China, made for a eight-day television extravaganza — and a public relations coup for hosts and guests alike. For eight days and nights, American television audiences tuned in to a spectacular parade of images from China, the first they had seen in more than twenty years."

The United States began to implement a more open policy with China in the 19th century. This was particularly the case in the realm of trade. Though immigration between the two nations was still minimal, the trade agreements help strengthen diplomatic ties.

"The growing emphasis on Asia as a focus of U.S. national security planning, known as the 'pivot to the Pacific,' is discussed in a new report from the Congressional Research Service."

"When China’s president, Hu Jintao, visits here next week, the exchange rate between Chinese and American currency will inevitably become a big topic of conversation.

China has been holding down the value of its currency, the renminbi, for years, making Chinese exports to the United States cheaper and American exports to China more expensive. The renminbi’s recent rise has been too...

"Pakistan and India are upgrading their Cyber War capabilities, partly by calling on allies for help. India has become a big customer of Israeli military equipment, and this now includes assistance in protecting themselves from Cyber War threats, especially from Pakistan. Meanwhile, Pakistan has found China to be a useful source of Cyber War technology. While Israel has some of the best...

"Since World War II, despite the costly flare-ups in Korea and Vietnam, the United States has proved to be the essential guarantor of stability in the Asian-Pacific region, even as the power cycle shifted from Japan to the Soviet Union and most recently to China. The benefits of our involvement are one of the great success stories of American and Asian history, providing the so-called second...

"Throughout history new technologies have revolutionised warfare, sometimes abruptly, sometimes only gradually: think of the chariot, gunpowder, aircraft, radar and nuclear fission. So it has been with information technology. Computers and the internet have transformed economies and given Western armies great advantages, such as the ability to send remotely piloted aircraft across the world to...

Rock music icon Bob Dylan avoided controversy Wednesday in his first-ever appearance in Communist-led China, eschewing the 1960s protest anthems that defined a generation and sticking to a song list that government censors say they preapproved....

"On Feb. 27, a diplomatic process will begin in Geneva that could result in a new treaty giving the United Nations unprecedented powers over the Internet."

"The latest U.S. trade figures contain some good news for the U.S., in the short term at least. In 2010, the U.S. trade deficit was $497.8 billion, which is up from $374.9 billion in 2009 but still almost 30 percent below the 2008 trade deficit of $698.8 billion. The 2010 trade balance comprised a trade in goods deficit of $646.5 billion and a trade in services surplus of $148.7 billion. While exports of goods were up $222.1 billion over 2009, imports were up $352.4 billion. Exports of services were also up $40.5 billion in 2010 compared to the increase in services imports of $23.8 billion."

"Back in January, we featured a post where we looked at who are the largest holders of the U.S. national debt. Since that time, the U.S. Treasury has revised their data, specifically to identify who the real foreign owners of the U.S. national debt are."

"The United States and China are gearing up for a trade war that could catch American users of solar energy in the crossfire."

"China's allegation that renewable- energy subsidies in five U.S. states violate free-trade rules ratchets up a potentially costly trade war between the world's two largest economies."

The moral issue in the U.S.-China crisis is being widely ignored. There should be no mistake about the ultimate responsibility for the collision between the American reconnaissance plane and the Chinese jet fighter.

"A hole in the ground means different things to different people. But what about a complex network of caverns more than 3,000 miles in length, deep underground, wide enough for two or three train cars, and used to keep nuclear weapons?

Prompted by a recent report by a Georgetown University professor, a debate has emerged among academics and arms control policy wonks about what that...

"So, America has decided. President Barack Obama has been returned for another term. Now it is China's turn. In the space of one week the world's two great powers decide their immediate futures."

"Solar companies Suntech Power Holdings Co Ltd (STP.N) and Trina Solar Ltd (TSL.N) said their first-quarter margins were squeezed as they set aside money to offset anti-dumping tariffs imposed by the U.S. government on solar panel imports from China.

The U.S. Commerce Department set punitive tariffs last Thursday after ruling in favor of the local firms that said Chinese exporters were...

The two countries are holding a Strategic and Economic Dialogue (S&ED) in Beijing, and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said they would cover many of the contentious commercial and foreign policy issues between the countries.

"The United States seeks to build a positive, cooperative, and comprehensive relationship with China by expanding areas of cooperation and addressing areas of disagreement, such as human rights. The United States welcomes a strong, peaceful, and prosperous China playing a greater role in world affairs and seeks to advance practical cooperation with China in order to build a partnership based...

"China almost certainly would mount a cyberattack on the U.S. in the event of a conflict, and the U.S. has no clear policy to determine how to respond appropriately, a congressional advisory panel is set to warn on Thursday."

"A White House letter promising the U.S. would give 'serious consideration' to selling Taiwan new F-16 fighter jets has reopened the sensitive topic of weapons sales to the island ahead of top-level U.S.-China meetings next week."

"The U.S. trade deficit rose in March at the fastest rate in 10 months."

"The Obama administration on Friday warned China against further moves to tighten control over a disputed section of the South China Sea, as tensions rose in the flashpoint region."

"China and the U.S. made little visible progress in resolving thorny diplomatic disputes during a visit by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton on Wednesday, as both sides stuck to long-standing positions on issues from regional territorial claims to violence in Syria.

Meanwhile, the Chinese government stayed silent on why Vice President Xi Jinping unexpectedly pulled out of a planned...

"The U.S. government should block a bid by China's state oil company CNOOC for Canadian oil company Nexen until China's government provides fair access for U.S. companies that want to invest in China, a top Democratic senator plans to tell Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner on Friday."

"While Beijing pushed for Pyongyang to open up to foreign investors, Washington announced new sanctions that would inevitably impede such plans. Beijing is concerned that North Korea’s deep economic crisis will compound the political instability surrounding any handover of power. According to the Chinese media, discussions between Kim and Chinese leaders focussed on Beijing’s demand for...

China must be given a seat at the top-table of world economic affairs, the US treasury secretary, Timothy Geithner, said yesterday as he moved to reassure China that its investments in the US dollar were safe.

"In the recent past, China has defended its investment in US Treasury bonds. Meanwhile, there is concern that its position as the biggest investor in US debt may become political as well as economic. Treasury bonds are how the US - and all governments for that matter - borrow money: they issue government securities, which other countries and institutions buy. So, the US national debt is owned...

"A vast electronic spying operation has infiltrated computers and has stolen documents from hundreds of government and private offices around the world, including those of the Dalai Lama, Canadian researchers have concluded.

In a report to be issued this weekend, the researchers said that the system was being controlled from computers based almost exclusively in China, but that they...

"Operation Aurora, the moniker given to the attacks on Google and several others, has developed into a security nightmare and political chess game. With so many questions left unanswered, there is still no clear proof that Aurora was a government attack. In truth, public information points not to a sanctioned attack by the Chinese government, but Malware kits and criminals keeping with...

"As the scandal surrounding Bo Xilai and his wife Gu Kailai has spiralled into the biggest crisis confronting Beijing for years, US officials repeatedly refused to comment on the power struggle."

"In reality, any threat from China will take a far less antiquated [atomic bomb] form. Just as it is already a world leader in future technologies - such as solar panels - so it has invested deeply in cyberwarfare, which it routinely uses to steal sensitive industrial materials such as blueprints.

If it ever clashed with the US (and a naval conflict in the North Pacific is the most...

"China shocked the world this weekend when it announced its largest trade deficit in more than two decades."

Investors and pundits alike have shown unbounded excitement, and some anxiety, about China’s economic growth. Extrapolating current trends, some forecasters predict that China’s economy will vault ahead of America’s in 15 years.

"Accusations of currency manipulation are causing tension, and world leaders are hoping the contentious topic won't turn this week's G-20 gathering in Seoul into an all-out global brouhaha.

But a fiery debate may be unavoidable, now that the world's two largest economies, the United States and China, are in an international spat over the issue.

The United States has accused China...

"Xi Jinping, ethnic Han, native of Fuping, Shaanxi Province, born in June 1953. Joined the CPC in January 1974 and began working in January 1969. Graduated from the School of Humanities and Social Sciences of Tsinghua University, majoring in Marxist theory and ideological education. With an on-the-job postgraduate education. LLD.

Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau...

"In 1978, after years of state control of all productive assets, the government of China embarked on a major program of economic reform. In an effort to awaken a dormant economic giant, it encouraged the formation of rural enterprises and private businesses, liberalized foreign trade and investment, relaxed state control over some prices, and invested in industrial production and the education of its workforce. By nearly all accounts, the strategy has worked spectacularly."

"After an extended period of calm, leaders in Tokyo and Beijing are again allowing their relations to be dictated by domestic politics.

Nationalism once again threatens to undermine the relative calm in the China-Japan relationship that has prevailed since the 2010 Senkaku crisis."

"This morning I sat down to create some graphs showing GDP for the U.S. and China."

"In November 2011, President Obama stood before the Australian Parliament and issued a veiled challenge to China's ambitions in Asia: 'As a Pacific nation, the United States will play a larger and long-term role in shaping this region and its future.'"

"Details of a highly organized, sustained campaign of computerized attacks against businesses and governments across 14 countries were disclosed yesterday by the security company McAfee.

The attacks stretch back almost five years, and ranged in duration from one month to 28 months. They affected 32 types of organizations, including government agencies and defense, construction,...

This article highlights a White House visit between President Barack Obama and China's future president Xi Jinping. It touches on the changing attitude toward China in light of their economic rise.

"He would like to bet that China's dollar GDP (calculated at market exchange rates) will NOT surpass America's in 2018."

"Consumers in the U.S. might have heard of ZTE because of a recent U.S. congressional report that called the Chinese company a national security threat."

Chart or Graph

By official accounts, the composition of China's defense expenditure in 1997 was as follows....

"Major credit cards, gaming platforms, governments, banks and news organizations have all been the victims of cyber attacks."

"China's concerted nuclear expansion began with the National Development and Reform Commission's (NDRC's) Tenth Economic Plan for the years 2001-2005."

China’s sovereign wealth is sure to grow. Figure 2 shows that at the end of 2006, China owned foreign assets worth $1.63 trillion, with most of those in the form of foreign exchange reserves.

"The graphic depicts China official defense budget since 1994, and associated Defense Intelligence Agency estimates of actual defense expenditure. All figures in 2006 US Dollars."

A slowdown in industry [in China], which produces nearly three-fifths of GDP, was the main cause of last year’s slower GDP growth on the output side.

GhostNet had a frightening range that spread all over the globe. Though the United States was not heavily infiltrated by the worm, there were a handful of companies affected.

"Some companies completely refuse to produce their products in or transfer their intellectual properties to countries they believe pose a threat."

"Amnesty's 2010 Death Penalty Report named China as the top executor with thousands of executions."

An explanation of China's currency manipulation. China is paid for goods in U.S. dollars, with which China eventually buys U.S. debt, which is ultimately used to buy more Chinese goods.

This map gives us a picture of cyber-attacks by country.

"Certain countries are emerging as clear sources of threats to sensitive data, in particular to intellectual property."

The military branch in charge of China’s nuclear arsenal has acknowledged building a network of tunnels more than 3,000 miles long. For the past three years, a team of Georgetown University students has studied those tunnels, led by their professor, a former senior Pentagon strategist.

"When asked which country represents the greatest danger to the U.S., more Americans volunteer Iran (28%) than name any other country, though nearly as many (22%) name China."

Here's a full list of all GhostNet infections around the world.

This chart compares the changes in GDP for the U.S., China and Japan over the last three decades. While America stands well above the other two, China has already been able to eclipse Japan.

With its wealth spread among roughly 1.4 billion people, per capita income in China remains low at around $4,200 — representing an immense potential for the country to extend development to its poorer regions.

"Here’s an updated version of our Cyber Attacks graphic showing a world map and chart illustrating targeted cyber attacks on more than 70 companies, government bodies and organizations...."

"The following graphic lists the ten most/least corrupt countries based on Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index for 2011. The Corruption Perception Index assigns countries and territories with scores between 0 (highly corrupt) and 10 (very clean)."

"There are all kinds of fascinating figures in there. But the most telling is per capita GDP."

"Respondents estimated that intellectual property worth approximately $17 million per firm is stored, accessed and managed overseas."

"The recent tensions over Iran’s nuclear program and disputes between the U.S. and Iran in the Persian Gulf have garnered a good deal of public attention."

In the recent past, China has defended its investment in US Treasury bonds. Meanwhile, there is concern that its position as the biggest investor in US debt may become political as well as economic.

"China currently is capable of targeting its nuclear forces throughout the region and most of the world, including the continental United States."

Military expenditure data provide an easily identifiable measure of the scale of resources absorbed by military activities. Military expenditure is an input measure.

This chart compares the military size of key countries in the Pacific.

This index, based on indicators from electricity generation to passenger traffic, is more timely than the official GDP figure. It is also more volatile, perhaps because China’s official data tend to smooth things out.

"Details of a highly organized, sustained campaign of computerized attacks against businesses and governments across 14 countries were the security company McAfee."

"Operation Shady RAT shares many similarities with the Operation Aurora and Night Dragon large-scale compromises also uncovered by researchers at the security firm, most notably in that Chinese hackers are again the prime suspects."

China’s size makes it a major supplier of a great many goods, but trade with the U.S. is nonetheless concentrated.

"[P]ublicly available information and occasional leaks make it possible to make best estimates about the size and composition of the national nuclear weapon stockpiles...."

"This map depicts notional coverage based on the range of the Russian-designed S-300PMU2 system equipped with the SA-20 SAM."

"A vast electronic spying operation has infiltrated computers and has stolen documents from hundreds of government and private offices around the world, including those of the Dalai Lama, Canadian researchers have concluded."

"Back in January, we featured a post where we looked at who are the largest holders of the U.S. national debt. Since that time, the U.S. Treasury has revised their data, specifically to identify who the real foreign owners of the U.S. national debt are."

As of 2009, the U.S. and Russia had roughly the same number of military personnel, with about 1.5 million each. Both are sizably outnumbered by China.

The slump in exports caused by the global recession bottomed during the first half of 2009 (Figure 3.9.6), and export growth was back in positive territory by December.

The top [chart] … shows that the Chinese emit about five times as much carbon dioxide per unit output as does the U.S.

In the last 37 years, manufacturing output in real dollars has more than doubled, while manufacturing employment has dropped by more than 26% ....

Using slightly different data than the AP article, the chart above shows U.S. Manufacturing Output (Gross Value) from The Federal Reserve, and U.S. Manufacturing Payroll Employment from the BLS (via Economagic), monthly from 1972-2009.

"Analysis of projections made by the U.S. intelligence community during the past decade for the growth in Chinese ICBM warheads shows that they have so far been too much too soon (see figure ... [above])."

Trading inequality. United States imports from China dwarf its exports... The trade deficit with China was a record $268 billion in 2008.

"The ability to visit a foreign country without the cost and hassle of obtaining a visa is a welcome bonus for any traveller."

Tonnes of uranium production by country from 2001-2011. The data for this chart is taken from the World Nuclear Association.

Analysis Report White Paper

"This Report sets forth the Commission’s analysis of the U.S.-China relationship in the topical areas designated by the Commission’s Congressional mandate; these are the areas the Commission is to consider, and about which it is to make recommendations to the Congress."

Growing numbers of human rights activists were imprisoned, put under house arrest or surveillance, or harassed.

"The United States has done much over the last 30 years to encourage and facilitate China’s national development and its integration into the international system. However, much uncertainty surrounds China’s future course, particularly regarding how its expanding military power might be used."

"Shanghai officials have since denied any policy shift, saying this caveat is nothing new, but the contradictory reports are another manifestation of ongoing rumors that Beijing is rethinking the controversial one-child policy that has for the past three decades helped spur economic growth — but exacted a heavy social cost along the way."

[T]his article argues that U.S. China policy ... began more than a half century before the Open Door notes and was in fact reflected in the treaty of Wangxia.

The annual Asian Development Outlook provides a comprehensive analysis of economic performance for the past year and offers forecasts for the next 2 years for the 45 Asian economies that make up developing Asia.

Aggressive fiscal and monetary stimulus in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 2009 offset much of the impact of the global recession.

"Until now, China's trains had always been a symbol of backwardness."

The Boxers, or 'The Righteous and Harmonious Fists,' were a religious society that had originally rebelled against the imperial government in Shantung in 1898.

"USTR's Office of China Affairs is responsible for managing the formulation and implementation of U.S. trade policy for China, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan and Mongolia, with the goal of increasing access for U.S. products and services in these markets and ensuring that the World Trade Organization (WTO) and other commitments are enforced."

China possesses nuclear weapons, a range of ballistic missile capabilities, and the ability to develop chemical and biological weapons. A key uncertainty is how current military modernization efforts will ultimately reshape China's strategic nuclear capabilities.

This thesis examines the connections between the Johnson administration’s concerns about China and the escalation of the Vietnam War in early 1965.

The relationship between China, ... is significant not only for the two peoples but also for the future of the whole world.

The current debates taking place in Washington over the impact of trade on jobs should make every economist cringe.

This article explains Chinese military thought that supports their cyberattack activities.

Chinese strategies rely on electrons in unanticipated ways to fulfill stratagems such as 'kill with a borrowed sword' or 'exhaust the enemy at the gate and attack him at your ease.'

China now stands at a historical moment, and its future and destiny have never been more closely connected with those of the international community.

"The tensions are a particular worry for China, the biggest buyer of Iranian oil, followed by India and Japan. Only Saudi Arabia and Angola sell more crude than Iran to China."

"A series of high-profile events in 2010 and 2011 highlighted the increasing and multifaceted threat of cyberattacks."

Contrary to the predictions of its supporters, China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) has failed to reduce its trade surplus with the United States or increase overall U.S. employment.

"There is real risk to both the bilateral relationship and to China’s relations with the rest of the world. The issue is not war, but cyber espionage. Cyber espionage exacerbates tensions and the situation will get worse until this changes."

"On April 8, a front page article was published in the Wall Street Journal on the dangers posed by cyberspies to the U.S. electrical grid. According to senior intelligence officers who spoke with the Journal, 'Cyberspies have penetrated the U.S. electrical grid and left behind software programs that could be used to disrupt the system.'"

"The American military faces a growing threat of potentially fatal equipment failure—and even foreign espionage—because of counterfeit computer components used in warplanes, ships, and communication networks."

"The rise of China poses grave challenges to U.S. security. Beijing implements a mercantilist trade policy and artificially sets a low value on its currency to promote exports, thus creating a large U.S. trade deficit with China year after year."

"Hackers have attacked America’s defense establishment, as well as companies from Google to Morgan Stanley to security giant RSA, and fingers point to China as the culprit. The author gets an exclusive look at the raging cyber-war—Operation Aurora! Operation Shady rat!—and learns why Washington has been slow to fight back."

Americans buy a huge quantity of goods— ranging from audio-video equipment to clothing—made, or at least assembled, in China.

"This pattern of protest and repression—with an emphasis on the latter—was echoed elsewhere in the world as news of the Arab uprisings spread beyond the Middle East and North Africa."

This paper explores the view that there are situations in which people in business must confront the possibility that they must compromise some of their important principles or values in order to protect other ones.

"The present essay is an effort to clear away some of the underbrush surrounding the problem of the effects of imperialism in China, in the hope of helping to make discussion of this important issue as sophisticated and empirical as the present state of research allows."

"The United States is in Asia to stay. The graphics that follow help to demonstrate why. A quick glance is enough to demonstrate the dynamism of the region. Asia is home to more than half the world’s population. Freedom and tyranny live side by side across the region, as do economic opportunity and poverty. East and South Asia have some of the best places in the world to do business, but they...

With China hosting its first-ever Olympics, the country has seen a surge in national pride. But Chinese are angry at what they see as the West trying to spoil their party.

"- Mainland China has 14 nuclear power reactors in operation, more than 25 under construction, and more about to start construction soon."

How the United States deals with China is one of the greatest foreign policy challenges Americans face in the 21st century.

"On January 14, 2010 McAfee Labs identified a zero-day vulnerability in Microsoft Internet Explorer that was used as an entry point for Operation Aurora to exploit Google and at least 20 other companies. Microsoft has since issued a security bulletin and patch."

Robert Kaplan, correspondent for The Atlantic and author of Monsoon: The Indian Ocean and the Future of American Power, is interviewed by Foreign Affairs on China and how America's relations with it might look in the near future.

"...I have often been asked by our worldwide customers if they should worry about such sophisticated penetrations themselves or if that is a concern only for government agencies, defense contractors, and perhaps Google . My answer in almost all cases has been unequivocal: absolutely."

"The South China Sea dispute between China and some of its South East Asian neighbours – Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei – has reached an impasse."

"This report, intended as a background overview, briefly summarizes U.S. political history with Taiwan and discusses the complications it has for current U.S. policy and for congressional actions."

How did the three powers in the Asia-Pacific region—the United States, China, and Japan—adjust their relations in the uncertain environment after Tiananmen (June 4, 1989) and the end of the Cold War?

Space warfare will be an integrated part of battle planning by the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) in any future conflict.

China’s substantial holdings of U.S. government debt and the creation of a sovereign wealth fund (SWF) are causing concern that U.S. economic and national security may be at risk.

This article addresses three aspects of the civilian and military use of China’s Internet.

As a fight against Communism, the Korean War caused friction between the United States and Communist China. This military history article describes the engagement between these two countries in the early 1950s.

Whether or not China's experience provides useful lessons depends on whether the nature and cause of the problems that China and other transition economies attempt to solve are similar.

"By outsourcing some aspects of operations, U.S. businesses and multinational corporations have been able to increase the amount of value built into products compared to the same dollars expended domestically and have further been able to diversify market holdings in Asia after reaching saturation points in U.S. and European markets."

"Computer network exploitation represents the leading edge of signals intelligence in the information age. The proliferation of computer systems throughout governments, businesses, and civic organizations represents a boon for would-be cyber spies."

The rise of democracy in South Korea and Taiwan attests to the power of the market in generating political liberalization.

"As we face one of the worst recessions in recent memory, protecting a company’s critical information assets like intellectual property and sensitive data has never been more important, yet challenging. A single breach or loss can cause irreparable financial damage to a company’s reputation, its share price and customer confidence."


China presents a complex puzzle to the United States. It is simultaneously a crucial trading partner, a major holder of U.S. debt, an independent diplomatic player, and a strategic competitor.

Daniel J. Ikenson discusses the effect changes in the value of the Chinese currency has on the American economy.

"Don Boudreaux of George Mason University talks with EconTalk host Russ Roberts about Chinese exchange rate policy and the claim that China keeps the value of its currency artificially low...

In March, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said the U.S. is on the losing side of a global information war, pointing out the successes of state funded international news networks like Al Jazeera.

Stefan Halper talks about his book "The Beijing Consensus” and about liberty and reforms in China.

Daniel Griswold talks about the nuanced nature of the U.S.’s trade with China.

"Charlie Rose and Erica Hill speak with Steve Kroft about a cyber attack that crippled the Iranian nuclear program for a time."

This video features the events of AEI's annual dinner and its guest speaker, Martin Feldstein.

"In this address, Bruce examined the future of cyber war and cyber security. Mr. Schneier explored the current debate on the threat of cyber war, asking whether or not the threat had been over-stated. He then explored the range of attacks that have taken place, including the Latvian DOS attack and the Stuxnet worm. The address concluded with an exploration of the future of international...

Sen. Wyden (OR-R) and the Senate Intelligence Committee, ask an intelligence panel about Iran's nuclear threat and U.S. terrorists threats, particularly with regard to the theft of 'intellectual property' and 'economic secrets.' Bottom line: US. must expand intelligence and military agency policies to prevent 'corporate espionage.'

"It isn't easy, running China, with its 1.3 billion people and 56 officially recognized ethnic nationalities. It's a vast mix of languages, living standards, beliefs and customs. Run it successfully, and you have a prosperous, innovative, powerful empire to rival any the world has seen. Make mistakes, and the chaos will be vast and terrible.

China is run by the Communist Party, which...

"China's women have always been under pressure: from men, from family, from work. Now more and more are under new pressure -- from themselves -- to take control of their lives; to get an education; to have a career; to marry for love. It's a slow, difficult process, and it is changing China.

Mass migration from the countryside to the cities is increasing prosperity, but fracturing...

"China is trying to feed 20 percent of the world's population on 7 percent of the world's arable land. A third of the world uses water from China's rivers. But rapid industrialization and climate change have led to bad air, polluted rivers and drought. Environmental activists, Party officials, academics and scientists are in a daily struggle over the damage to nature in China.


"How free are the Chinese people? How free to worship as they please? To learn the truth from the media? To hear the truth from the Communist Party and the government? How can people with a grievance negotiate with the state?

Tibetan Buddhism has long been feared as a rallying point and cover for Tibetan independence. Worship is permitted on the Party's strict terms -- neither...

James Fallows interviews Damien Ma (an official who oversees the investment of United States Government bonds).

In late 2011, the Asian Arms Control Project at Georgetown University released a report on the nature of China's underground tunnels. Declaring these tunnels to be a "key component of ... [China's] burgeoning nuclear deterrence infrastructure," this video uses a variety of Chinese video footage to explain the historical development of the tunnels and China's missile program.

“When Chairman Mao died in 1976, he left China in chaos and poverty. He was succeeded by Deng Xiaoping, who overturned Maoism and taught the Chinese to love capitalism, creating special investment zones for the West. But Deng's crash course in capitalism went wrong when inflation grew and workers lost jobs.

By 1989, China faced disaster. Now, 20 years after the tragic events in...

A panel of experts discuss the state of cyber-security in the United States and certain measures that may be taken to improve the system. At time 1:18:00 the discussion becomes especially relevant.

"The U.S. government is about to declare a new war, but this time the enemy is a virtual one. A string of attacks on government websites by hackers has driven American policy-makers into a state of high-alert over a so-called terrorist threat. But some doubt the danger even exists, as RT's Lucy Kafanov reports."

President Ronald Reagan arrived in China on April 26, 1984, to start a six-day visit - the first by an American president since President Nixon in 1972.

"Professor Howard Schmidt, ISF President and one time security adviser to the White House discusses how and why corporate espionage is taking place."

"The author of 'Monsoon' explains why an attack won't be necessary, and why China is just like the U.S. in the late 19th century."

What can the Stuxnet worm accomplish? Who can use it? Does it threaten Americans?

China now has one of the largest rural-urban income gaps in the world, with the vast majority of its 120 million extreme poor living in the countryside.

Looking at all aspects of culture, science, and economics the great divergence between China and Europe was further back than was traditionally thought.

Cato Institute Vice President for Defense and Foreign Policy Studies Ted Galen Carpenter evaluated the U.S./China relationship during Policy Day held May 14, 2010.

Primary Document

The question of how the United States should respond to China’s military modernization effort, including its naval modernization effort, has emerged as a key issue in U.S. defense planning.

The Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress approved an act banned transportation of 'coolies' in ships that were either owned or not owned by citizens of the United States of America.

The Senate and House Representations of the United States of America in Congress approved a law stating that any immigration of Chinese, Japanese, or any Asian country, to the United States must be free and voluntary.

The Scott Act extended Chinese exclusion laws indefinitely.

The 1917 Immigration Act, also known as the Asiatic Barred Zone Act, was a law passed by Congress that restricted the immigration of 'undesirables' from other countries...

This act repealed the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, established quotas for Chinese immigration, and allowed Chinese nationals in the U.S. to become naturalized citizens.

This Act amended previous Acts controlling Chinese immigration, in particular the Magnuson Act passed on December 17, 1943...

The following report covers the areas of: proliferation practices, economic transfers, energy, United States capital markets, regional economic and security impacts ...

"REFORM--DUBBED CHINA'S 'SECOND REVOLUTION'--was one of the most common terms in China's political vocabulary in the 1980s. Reform of the Chinese Communist Party and its political activities, reform of government organization, reform of the economy, military reforms, cultural and artistic reforms, indeed, China's post-Mao Zedong leaders called for reform of every part of Chinese society. The...

The parties shall cooperate in the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes in accordance with the provisions of this agreement.

This hearing transcript provides an extensive look into China's "One-Child Policy."

This address was delivered to Congress during a time when the U.S. was engaged in the Korean War.

This piece provides brief descriptions, compiled by the U.S. Department of State, of China’s political, economic, and social institutions.

The Boxer Rebellion was waged in China at the turn of the twentieth century due to the increased influence of the United States and other nations in Chinese territory and affairs.

As we announced yesterday, the Secretary leaves tomorrow for a very important trip to Tokyo, Shanghai, Beijing, and Seoul.

This treaty strengthened relations between the U.S. and China in the mid-1800s.

"The gathering and the distribution of news have long since ceased to be a local and individual occupation. They have become identified with great organizations have their representatives in all parts of the country and their publications in every important center. This service could only be performed by a mutual exchange of the most inclusive nature. How rapid and complete has been the growth...

This paper presents a comprehensive open source assessment of China’s capability to conduct computer network operations (CNO) both during peacetime and periods of conflict.

Following the implementation of the Chinese Exclusion Act, the Chinese gentleman represented in this case attempted to return to the United States under his original authorization.

"USTR's Office of China Affairs is responsible for managing the formulation and implementation of U.S. trade policy for China, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan and Mongolia, with the goal of increasing access for U.S. products and services in these markets and ensuring that the World Trade Organization (WTO) and other commitments are enforced.

It also includes working closely with USTR's Office...

"Although there is no authoritative statement of policy from the Chinese government on the Arctic, scientists and academics in China are increasingly showing interest in the region, and suggesting policies and actions for the nation. Given that the United States is an Arctic littoral state* with interests in the region, this memo seeks to provide an overview of Chinese environmental, energy,...

"This report provides an overview of U.S.-China trade ties and major issues."

Despite apparently consistent statements in four decades, the U.S. 'one China' policy concerning Taiwan remains somewhat ambiguous and subject to different interpretations.

The coming of Chinese laborers to the United States be, and the same is hereby, suspended; and during such suspension it shall not be lawful for any Chinese laborer to come.

"This report is prepared annually to provide Congress with official, unclassified, quantitative data on conventional arms transfers to developing nations by the United States and foreign countries for the preceding eight calendar years for use in its policy oversight functions. All agreement and delivery data in this report for the United States are government-to-government Foreign Military...

President Nixon explains to a group of Congressional leaders, ... the importance of restoring communication with China as a way of mitigating suspicion and miscalculation, which could lead to war.

In terms of size, scope, and magnitude, trademark counterfeiting in China is considered by many to the most serious counterfeiting problem in world history.

"Cyberwarfare raises issues of growing national interest and concern. Cyberwarfare can be used to describe various aspects of defending and attacking information and computer networks in cyberspace, as well as denying an adversary's ability to do the same. Some major problems encountered with cyber attacks, in particular, are the difficulty in determining the origin and nature of the attack...

As of January 1, 1979, the United States of America recognizes the People's Republic of China as the sole legal government of China.

This statement reports on efforts to release "American airmen and other United Nations personnel detained in Red China."

"The final thing, a subject that I want to open up personally before we go to the questions, is merely the Korean question.

I wrote a letter to Mr. Rhee in which I earnestly tried to express what is my understanding and, I believe, the American understanding of how we got into that war, what we were trying to achieve, where we are now, and what we are trying to do. In no case have we...

This emigration treaty followed the infamous "Chinese Exclusion Act."

This executive order deals with "the appropriateness of unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) trading status for the People’s Republic of China."

A Chinese Christian, Fei Ch’i-hao recounts the Boxer War from his perspective.

The issue of American/Chinese relations was one of the many topics addressed by President Harrison in this speech.

This note addresses Germany's trade relations with China and also expresses the desire of the U.S. to do the same.

This news conference contains President Bush's remarks on the events in Tiananmen Square.

This resolution gives a brief outline of the events between China and Tibet. The resolution then goes on to make several statements about the United States' position on the matter.

In this speech, President Harry Truman outlines the American war effort in Korea. Truman frames the conflict by describing the efforts in Korea as an attempt to prevent "world war III."

Mr. Chairman and distinguished Members of the Commission, it is my pleasure to have the opportunity to discuss China’s efforts in the realm of human rights, the rule of law and the environment and the prospects for U.S.-China cooperation on this critical issue.

"The House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (herein referred to as 'the Committee') initiated this investigation in November 2011 to inquire into the counterintelligence and security threat posed by Chinese telecommunications companies doing business in the United States."

United States senator J. William Fulbright of Arkansas supported the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which allowed President Lyndon Johnson to expand U.S. military involvement in the Vietnam War (1959-1975).

Following the growth of ties between China and the U.S. in 1978, the two countries established full diplomatic relations effective January 1, 1979.

President Richard Nixon of the United States of America visited the People's Republic of China at the invitation of Premier Chou Enlai of the People's Republic of China from February 21 to February 28, 1972.

In 1961, President John F. Kennedy met with China's Vice President, Mr. Chen. This statement describes the details of their discussion.

"Former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger discusses what it was like the first time he visited Beijing in 1971, the nation's economic rise, and whether U.S. worries about China are justified."

A list of Lenin’s writings selected by the Editors of the Lenin Internet Archive for their political influence and significance, historical value and reflection of Lenin’s beliefs.

This letter eventually set into motion the "Treaty of Wangxia." In it, President Tyler expressed his desire to establish a fair and honest trade system between the U.S. and China.

The 'Manifesto of the Communist Party' was written by Marx and Engels as the Communist League’s programme on the instruction of its Second Congress ..., which signified a victory for the followers of a new proletarian line during the discussion of the programme questions.

The document describes the monetary aid that the United States gave to China, while also extending praise and encouragement to the Chinese citizens who were sacrificially fighting the Japanese.

An unfortunate accident in 1927 between an American naval ship and a Chinese boat resulted in the death of a Chinese citizen. This document seeks to make amends for the incident in the form of a $500 payment.

This message announced a nuclear energy agreement between the U.S. and China.

China has made great progress in its pursuit of economic growth and development, which has allowed China to achieve higher living standards for the Chinese people and has increased China’s international profile.

China’s rapid rise as a regional political and economic power with global aspirations is an important element of today’s strategic environment – one that has significant implications for the region and the world.

"China’s rapid rise as a regional political and economic power with global aspirations is an important element of today’s strategic environment – one that has significant implications for the region and the world. The United States welcomes the rise of a peaceful and prosperous China, and it encourages China to participate as a responsible international stakeholder by taking on a greater share...

"People's Republic of China (PRC) leaders have outlined national strategic objectives in a series of 'white papers' on China's foreign policy, national defense, and arms control. However, such documents offer only limited insights on the motivations behind the objectives, or the specific strategies to achieve them. The linkages between the occasional strategic pronouncement and actual policy...

This treaty between America and China was ratified in order "to declare publicly and formally their sense of unity and their common determination to defend themselves against external armed attack.

A political report made by Chairman Mao Tse-tung to the Seventh National Congress of the Communist Party of China.

This statement represents House Speaker Nancy Pelosi's views on Chinese control of Tibet.

This trade agreement between America and China seeks "to enhance friendship between both peoples" and to "develop further economic and trade relations between both countries."

"The Philippine Government faces threats from several groups, some of which are on the US Government's Foreign Terrorist Organization list. Manila has waged a decades-long struggle against ethnic Moro insurgencies in the southern Philippines, which has led to a peace accord with the Moro National Liberation Front and on-again/off-again peace talks with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. The decades-long Maoist-inspired New People's Army insurgency also operates through much of the country. The Philippines faces increased tension with China over disputed territorial claims in the South China Sea."

This testimony notes the details in regard to China's acceptance into the World Trade Organization in 2001. Freeman then goes on to describe how Chinese imports to countries such as the U.S. have increased since then.

"Good morning. Laura and I are pleased to welcome President Hu Jintao and his wife, Madame Liu, to the White House. (Applause.)

The United States and China are two nations divided by a vast ocean -- yet connected through a global economy that has created opportunity for both our peoples. The United States welcomes the emergence of a China that is peaceful and prosperous, and that...

According to this document, the leaders of each America and China consented to a more open trade agreement in which trade duties were lifted on some imports and exports.

Trade between the United States and China has expanded significantly even though China has maintained restrictions on market access for U.S. exports and investment.

'Quotations from Mao Tse Tung" is comprised of excerpts from the Chinese leader's speeches and writings from 1927 through 1964

In the Fall of 1964, "Communist China exploded a nuclear device on an isolated test site in Sinkiang." President Johnson condemned the incident, declaring that China's "nuclear pretensions are both expensive and cruel to its people.

Commenting on his discussion with the president of China, President Clinton expressed a desire to be friendly with the nation, but only if they agreed to address some serious issues such as human rights and other common concerns.

As the title suggests, this document contains President Nixon's comments after his trip to China.

It is a great honor to welcome you to the first meeting of the Strategic Economic Dialogue between the United States and China.

In the Spring of 2001, an American aircraft landed in China and was unwillingly detained for 11 days. ... This document contains President Bush's remarks after the crew had been released by the Chinese government.

"I would like to thank Cambodia for hosting this meeting of the ASEAN Regional Forum. This institution has matured in recent years, emerging as a cornerstone of an increasingly effective regional architecture for the Asia-Pacific. Today is an opportunity for all of us to gather in one place and grapple with the most important challenges to our common security and prosperity. I would like to briefly touch on three of these issues and then say a few words about the future of this body."

This document announces President Nixon's intentions to make his now famous trip to China.

In this address, President Reagan reflects on the diplomatic progress that was made between America and China because of his trip.

Travelogue of Chinese pictures from Robert Henry Chandless.

This piece provides a brief, historical overview of the United States' Open Door Policy in the early 1900s.

This speech describes the opening and expansion of Chinese sea ports due to a treaty between England and China. President John Tyler hoped to capitalize on these developments to achieve more trade between China and America.

Excerpts from a speech given by Chairman Mao Tse-tung at China’s Supreme State Conference in 1958.

This site provides an extensive archive of the speeches delivered at the Democratic National Convention of 2008, sorted by speaker or topic.

In an attempt to formulate better relations between America and China, President Nixon made the suggestions in this document. One of the initiatives is the authorization of "direct imports of designated items from China."

In the midst of the Korean conflict, President Truman issued the following statement on conflict between the Chinese mainland and the island of Formosa.

This piece describes U.S. policy with China following the conclusion of WWII.

This speech marked the culmination of a trade agreement with China.

"The dominant political issues continue to be the relationship between Taiwan and China - specifically the question of Taiwan's eventual status - as well as domestic political and economic reform."

It is the policy of the United States to preserve and promote extensive, close, and friendly commercial, cultural, and other relations between the people of the United States and the people on Taiwan.

"In 1979, official U.S. relations with Taiwan (the Republic of China) became a casualty of the American decision to recognize the government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) as China's sole legitimate government. Since then, U.S. unofficial relations with Taiwan have been built on the framework of the Taiwan Relations Act (P.L. 96-8) and shaped by three U.S.-China communiqués. Under...

A program of cultural exchange between the U.S. and China for the period 1984 and 1985.

The appeal involves a consideration of the validity of the Act of Congress of October 1, 1888, prohibiting Chinese laborers from entering the United States who had departed before its passage, having a certificate issued under the act of 1882.

As a result of our wartime alliance with China, this act was passed by the U.S. Congress to repeal the ... Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and subsequent acts, allowing for the first time in 60 years the legal immigration of Chinese into the U.S.

The history of Chinese immigration in the United States is a somewhat peculiar one.

The First 'Open Door Note' by John Hay, U.S. Secretary of State to Andrew D. White

An act to prohibit the coming of Chinese persons into the United States.

It is the purpose of the following chapters to trace the part of the United States in the first division of the second period, i. e., the years before 1844.

One of the most remarkable achievements of the foreign policy of the United States was not to appear until seventy-six years after the promulgation of the famous Monroe Doctrine. It was the Open-Door Policy.

This state of the union address was given shortly before the start of the Civil War. One of the many things President Buchanan discussed was a recent treaty with China.

Selected dispatches from U.S. military and diplomatic officials related to the capture of the city of Tientsin during the Boxer War.

There shall be, as there always has been, peace and friendship between the United States of America and the Ta-Tsing Empire, and between their people respectively.

The Wangxia treaty sought to establish "a perfect, permanent, and universal peace and a sincere and cordial amity between the United States of America on the one part, and the Ta-Tsing Empire on the other part.

"The U.S. officials announced meaningful progress on key elements of the U.S.-China trade relationship, but also underscored that much more work remains to be done to open China's market to U.S. exports and investment."

"In 1979, the United States changed its diplomatic recognition from Taipei to Beijing. In the U.S.-P.R.C. Joint Communique that announced the change, the United States recognized the Government of the People's Republic of China as the sole legal government of China and acknowledged the Chinese position that there is but one China and Taiwan is part of China. The Joint Communique also stated that within this context the people of the United States will maintain cultural, commercial, and other unofficial relations with the people on Taiwan."

This CRS Report, updated as warranted, discusses the agreement on civilian nuclear cooperation with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) by focusing on congressional roles in crafting and carrying out the agreement.

"For decades, Taiwan has been of significant security, economic, and political interest to the United States."

We are here today to share some good news with each other. With the four agreements that we are about to sign, the normalization of relations between the United States of America and the People's Republic of China is at last complete.

This letter announces "The Agreement on Trade Relations" and gives the President's thoughts on the benefits of the agreement.

This testimony relates the struggles of an American company trying to work with its subsidiaries in China.

In this testimony, Wu encourages the U.S. to "push China to make a genuine improvement in its human rights."

One of the most important actions you and your colleagues can take to help us protect our intellectual property rights in China is to continue to call attention to the Chinese authorities that you consider the theft of US intellectual property a high priority.



Could cyber-attacks be used to cause physical damage? What other vulnerabilities might be exploited in a cyber-attack? Could an attack disrupt infrastructure such as power grids? All these questions and more are answered in the FAQ below.

Is the threat of an EMP a legitimate concern? What kind of infrastructural damage is an EMP capable of? How long would the consequences of such an attack last? All these questions and more will be answered in this FAQ.

One of the most serious threats to national security, individual privacy, and protection of one's assets comes from Intellectual Property (I.P.) espionage. What kind of information may be stolen? Who is or has the capability of engaging in effective I.P. espionage? Has this already happened? What can the United States do? All these questions and more are answered in this FAQ.

Missile defense. It's been talked about for decades, some of us even grew up watching Patriot missiles shoot down Iraqi Scud missiles in the first Gulf War. But where do things stand today? Is it still needed? Should I care? Those questions and more are answered in the FAQ below.