America and Transnational Terrorism

While terrorism was not new for many nation-states around the globe, the United States was brutally awakened to the enormity of the threat after the second attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 (9-11). In a way, that event ushered in the realization that the world is now in a new era of terrorism: transnational.

The new terrorists, like Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda, have no specific loyalty to a particular nation-state. They move men, funds, and weapons across nation-state borders in the service of their religious ideology. They target military, commercial, and civilian targets alike with suicide bombers, media campaigns, and fear. They are elusive and driven. They are among us.

In a world composed of nation-states, these transnational terrorists threaten to overturn the existing order. To fight them effectively, a nation-state must be able to freely move its counter-terrorists across nation-state borders just as the terrorists do. Yet, no nation-state is willing to allow another nation-state's counter-terrorists to roam freely about. Such actions would destroy nation-state sovereignty. Instead, much effort is put into international cooperation. Naturally, questions about the durability of the nation-state in this environment should be raised, particularly when a nuclear attack is considered.

Following the events on 9/11, the United States vowed to hunt down those responsible and bring them to justice. This task has proved difficult with al-Qaeda operating in 60 known countries worldwide. Unable to invade every country al-Qaeda operates in, the United States has been forced to develop partnerships with numerous nation-states in order to track the movement of terrorists, stifle their ability to move funds, and bring to justice those who intend to do harm to us. Additionally, similar steps have been taken domestically to do the same.

With the successful assassination of Osama bin Laden after extensive intelligence gathering and a precise strike by a special forces team, the United States achieved a symbolic victory nearly ten years after the World Trade Center attack on 9/11. It showed the difficulty of finding specific terrorists in foreign countries, but also that success can be achieved to a great degree through intelligence and focused efforts. The success of the effort will likely impact many future decisions for American and other's efforts at counter-terrorism. 

America and Transnational Terrorism explores the history of transnational terrorism and provides a number of opinions on how best to move forward against the threat.

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"The Federal Bureau of Investigation revealed more details about today’s arrests of Minnesotans accused of aiding the Somalia - based terrorist organization al-Shabab."

"Pakistan may let surrogate Taliban use its nuclear weapons to do its 'dirty work' against India in the event of escalation of tension between the two South Asian neighbours over Kashmir, a top US non-proliferation expert has suggested. Bob Graham, head of US Commission on the Prevention related stories of WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction) proliferation and terrorism painted such a scenario at...

This short piece reports the killing of two police officers investigating terrorism in Indonesia.

"More than two dozen prisoners with suspected ties to Islamist militants have escaped from a detention center in Tajikistan, killing five prison guards, officials there said Monday.

Among the 25 prisoners who managed to flee, according to officials, were militants from Russia's North Caucasus region and members of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, which is classified by the State...

"Al-Qaeda is attempting to muscle in on the revolt against Assad's regime. But will it work?"

"Britain and fellow United Nations Security Council countries are likely to be asked to help bankroll an African force of 3,200 soldiers to fight Islamists in Mali, diplomats have said."

"Anwar Al-Awlaki may have been killed in a drone strike last fall, but the American cleric's legacy is still a draw for potential American jihadist recruits, the FBI and Department of Homeland Security are warning.

A new FBI/Homeland Security intelligence bulletin, first obtained by Fox News, says al Qaeda in Yemen, also known as al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, is determined to...

"The October al-Qaida video shows a light-skinned man handing out food to families displaced by famine in Somalia. But the masked man is not Somali, or even African – he's a Wisconsin native who grew up in San Diego.

A handful of young Muslims from the U.S. are taking high-visibility propaganda and operational roles inside an al-Qaida-linked insurgent force in Somalia known as al-Shabab...

"Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) is a Salafi-jihadist militant group and U.S.-designated Foreign Terrorist Organization operating in North Africa's Sahara and Sahel. The group can trace its provenance back to Algeria's civil war, and has since become an al-Qaeda affiliate with broader regional and international ambitions. While many experts suggest AQIM is the primary transnational...

"THE numbers tell the story: America's counter-terrorism campaign is gradually shifting from Afghanistan and the tribal areas of Pakistan to Yemen, Somalia and other parts of Africa. In just six weeks, drone attacks in Yemen against al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) have killed around 90 fighters. According to the Long War Journal, a website, America launched four attacks in April, including one this week that is believed to have killed five fighters in the Azzan district of Shabwa province. In March America carried out six strikes with Predator or Reaper drones, probably flying from a still-secret new CIA airbase in the region."

"[...] Al-Shaabab continued it's forced recruitment drive by opening registration offices in Baidoa, Kismayo, and Marka, and requiring young men, mainly from minority clans to register to join their Jihad against the Somali and Kenyan governments, according to local al-Shaabab officials[...]"

"Last Friday about 100 people protested at a Minneapolis Wells Fargo branch that refuses to help Somali money transfers. Several banks are refusing to work with these money-transfer businesses, known as hawalas, after two Rochester, Minn., women were recently convicted of sending money to the terrorist group al-Shabaab in Somalia."

"In an interview with the Cairo-based publication Al Shuruq al Jadid in late October, Ahmed Ashush, the founder of Ansar al Sharia Egypt, praised al Qaeda and defended the terrorist organization against criticisms."

"Ansar al Sharia Egypt has published its founding statement online. The group says that 'preaching and jihad are two wings that are indispensable to the spread of Islam,' according to a translation prepared by the SITE Intelligence Group. And the group outlines 16 goals with that two-pronged approach in mind."

Islamic extremists have been targeting Europe instead of the United States because the Bush administration has made a domestic attack much more difficult through improvements in U.S. traveler screening and border security.

"Gen. Ashfaq Parvez Kayani is a moderate, pro-American infantry commander who is widely seen as commanding respect within the army and within Western circles."

"Violence is once again rearing its ugly head in Bahrain."

"Bahraini authorities have revoked the citizenships of 31 Shia activists, among them two former members of parliament, for having 'undermined state security,' according to state news."

"On January 17, 2012, a rebellion began in Mali when ethnic Tuareg fighters attacked a Malian army garrison in the eastern town of Menaka near the border with Niger.... IN the conflict's early weeks, the ethno-nationalist rebels of the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA)... cooperated and sometimes collaborated with Islamist fighters of Ansar Eddine for as long as the divergent movements had a common enemy in the Malian state.... On March 22, disgruntled Malian soldiers upset about their lack of support staged o coup d'état, overthrowing the democratically elected government of President Amadou Toumani Touré."

"At least two people were killed in Bahrain on Monday after a series of bomb blasts, just days after the kingdom clamped down on protests."

"A US jury on Tuesday convicted a Boston area man of plotting to join Islamist militants in Yemen, then helping to spread Al-Qaeda publicity.

The court in Boston found Tarek Mehanna guilty on five terrorism-related charges and three others related to lying to FBI officials. Mehanna, 29, faces up to life in prison."

"Hundreds of foreign fighters are actively training and fighting in Somalia, Western intelligence agencies and Somali government officials are estimating. Most of these so-called 'Al-Mujahiroun' are suspected to be from other African countries like Sudan, Kenya, Chad or Eritrea followed by the Arab fighters, some of which are Pakistan/Afghanistan-trained and experienced."

"Four men in California have been arrested for 'plotting' to join the Taliban and kill Americans overseas, but like many of the conspiracies foiled by federal officials, these terrorists were far from completing any missions."

Katulis and Curtis argue whether or not it is in the United States best interest to enter Pakistan, without the country's approval, to pursue Osama Bin Laden.

"A recent report from the software security firm McAfee has raised awareness about the potential for hacking of vital information about governments and businesses."

"The House of Representatives has passed revisions to the broad antiterrorism law known as the USA Patriot Act, clearing the way for President George W. Bush to sign legislation making permanent most of the major provisions of the original 2001 law."

"Pakistan has been a nuclear power for two decades, and has an estimated eighty to a hundred warheads, scattered in facilities around the country. The success of the latest attacks raised an obvious question: Are the bombs safe? Asked this question the day after the Rawalpindi raid, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said, 'We have confidence in the Pakistani government and the military's...

"As the Pentagon begins to wind down the war in Afghanistan, the smaller conflicts elite U.S. forces are fighting around the world are heating up."

"Ties between the United States and Yemen are being strained by a growing disagreement over how to combat the Yemen-based terrorist group that U.S. officials have called the most potent al-Qaeda franchise."

"Under pressure from state surveillance and disapproval from local communities, activists who once trawled high-profile mosques for recruits increasingly use more discreet venues including makeshift prayer halls and bookshops, said Peter Neumann, a political scientist at Kings College, London. 'This pattern of withdrawal from open agitation is consistent across Western Europe,' said Neumann,...

"European armies are expected to send up to 400 special forces troops to Mali to join an African-led mission against Islamists allied to al-Qaeda occupying the country's desert north, diplomats said."

"Jihadist networks span Europe from Poland to Portugal, thanks to the spread of radical Islam among the descendants of guest workers once recruited to shore up Europe's postwar economic miracle. In smoky coffeehouses in Rotterdam and Copenhagen, makeshift prayer halls in Hamburg and Brussels, Islamic bookstalls in Birmingham and 'Londonistan,' and the prisons of Madrid, Milan, and Marseilles,...

"The 'mixture of Germans and Arabs' killed in a CIA drone strike in northwest Pakistan provides further evidence that jihadists with European passports are training for plots against the West, a senior western counter-terrorism official told NBC News [...].

The official, who asked not to be identified, said that western officials still have no hard evidence to back up Pakistani claims...

"Following one of the worst periods in the history of the relationship between the United States and Pakistan, several encouraging developments have taken place in recent months. Unfortunately, we are passing through the eye of a Pakistani storm that is almost sure to whip up again in 2013, if not sooner."

"Terrorism threatens every society. As the world takes action against it, we have all been reminded of the need to address the conditions that permit the growth of such hatred and depravity. We must confront violence, bigotry and hatred even more resolutely. The United Nations' work must continue as we address the ills of conflict, ignorance, poverty and disease.

Doing so will not...

Although currently plagued by an Islamist terror threat, French authorities have made their country so inhospitable to terrorist networks that many have relocated to Germany.

"Syria state television has broadcast images of soldiers battling what they called 'foreign terrorists'. Amateur videos have also revealed foreign fighters allegedly hoping to wage a religious war in Syria."

"Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs) are foreign organizations that are designated by the Secretary of State in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), as amended."

"Three California men excited at the prospect of training in Afghanistan to become terrorists prepared, authorities say, by simulating combat with paintball rifles, wiping their Facebook profiles of any Islamic references and concocting cover stories."

"France will move surveillance drones to West Africa and is holding secretive talks with US officials in Paris as it seeks to steer international military action to help Mali's government win back the north from al-Qaeda-linked rebels."

Gates emphasized the strength of unity in light of changes ranging from terrorism, transnational crime, natural and manmade disasters, human trafficking, cyber threats and smuggling of weapons of mass destruction.

"General Ashfaq Kayani, the chief of staff of the Pakistan Army, is much in the news these days. Senior foreign diplomatic officials make it a point to consult with him when in Islamabad."

"The primary focus of this strategy is to isolate Taliban's supreme commander Mullah Omar in order to force him to negotiate with the United States and pave the way for the US withdrawal."

"They were young disaffected men who were radicalized and turned into Islamist militants bent on killing American soldiers stationed in Germany. In a Düsseldorf courtroom where the four men were standing trial this week, Judge Ottmar Breidling said the defendants had dreamed of 'mounting a second 9/11.' But their plot went awry when German police were tipped off to their activities and special...

"In his memoirs, Michael von Wedel, a former agent at Germany’s Federal Bureau for Criminal Investigations (BKA), recalls the frantic activity at the agency following the 9/11 attacks. '…All the investigations, dragnets and other measures that were now gearing up,' he writes, 'were accompanied by a certain shame and collective bad conscience concerning the fact that the biggest terrorist...

Military intervention toppled Libyan leader Muammar Qaddafi, but it also helped create a possible Islamist haven in northern Mali ... which has prompted more calls for military intervention.

"The Islamist movement that rules Gaza is now trying to rebrand itself as more open and more moderate."

"The Obama administration struck a largely symbolic blow Friday against what it considers the most violent and intransigent enemy of U.S. forces in Afghanistan, declaring that it will add the Pakistan-based Haqqani network to its list of terrorist organizations. Ordered by Congress last month to label the Taliban affiliate an official terrorist group or explain why it didn't qualify, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton informed lawmakers that she will designate the Haqqani group the 52nd entry on the State Department's Foreign Terrorist Organizations list."

"Pakistan is half way through the construction of its fourth nuclear reactor at Khushab, which will give it capability to speed up plutonium manufacturing, latest US satellite imagery has revealed.

On completion, the reactor would enable Islamabad to build large number of smaller nuclear warheads, Washington-based eminent think-tank Institute for Science and International Security said...

"A group of researchers has discovered serious security holes in six top industrial control systems used in critical infrastructure and manufacturing facilities and, thanks to exploit modules they released on Thursday, have also made it easy for hackers to attack the systems before they’re patched or taken offline.

The vulnerabilities were found in widely used programmable logic...

Part of the problem is the name of the campaign: a 'war on terrorism.' War implies the use of military force. Yet force will be the exception, rather than the rule, for fighting the war on terrorism.

"A top ideologue for the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan urged Pakistanis living in Waziristan to continue to shelter jihadists, and said the Pakistani state has done the most damage to terror groups operating in the region."

"The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) first took form in the Fergana Valley's traditional foundations. There, religion had been the mould and template for mahalla life."

"Ahead of the Nuclear Security Summit here next week, India today voiced concerns over Pakistan's nuclear programme saying it has 'very little confidence' on the capabilities of its western neighbour on securing its atomic assets."

"There exists no definitional consensus regarding what constitutes a 'lone wolf,' and it is often highly difficult to determine the extent to which individual terrorists operate on their own. Keeping such reservations in mind, existing research indicates that individual terrorists are found among a variety of ideological camps including right- and left-wing radicals, anarchists, Islamists,...

"The National Police are currently trying to verify the authenticity of a letter taunting the police's anti-terror detachment allegedly written by a wanted terrorist, Jakarta Globe reported...."

"Abu Bakr, a Syrian rebel commander on the outskirts of Aleppo, is a devoted Islamist determined to overthrow President Bashar al-Assad. But the radical allies that have joined the rebels in recent months alarm even him."

"After seeing spending double over a decade, U.S. intelligence agencies are bracing for about $25 billion in budget cuts over the next 10 years that top officials said will increase security risks."

"The U.S. government's total spending on intelligence activities fell in 2012, the second year in a row of declines after years of soaring security spending since the September 11 attacks in 2001."

"Around the world, even more than in the United States, there is an audible sigh of relief the day after Obama won a clear mandate for a second term as president."

"On 19 October 1986, the House Judiciary Committee sent a letter to Attorney General Edwin Meese, asking that he appoint an independent counsel to investigate the roles of the National Security Council, the NSC staff, and DCI Casey in the contra supply effort."

"The Islamic Jihad Union—also known as al-Djihad al-Islami, Dzhamaat Modzhakhedov, and the Islamic Jihad Group of Uzbekistan, among other names—is an extremist organization that splintered from the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan in the early 2000s. It adheres to an anti-Western ideology, opposes secular rule in Uzbekistan, and seeks to replace the current regime with a government based on...

"Audie Cornish speaks with Seth Jones of the RAND Corporation about the increasing role that jihadists and foreign fighters are playing in the Syrian conflict."

"Pakistan's Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gilani today extended the term of the country's powerful army chief by three years in a move to preserve continuity in the fight against Islamist militancy."

"The presidential campaign has featured plenty of talk about terrorism in the Middle East, but one lawmaker is warning that the federal government is ignoring a growing Hezbollah presence in Mexico, with the Lebanese terror group increasingly joining forces with drug cartels."

"A CIA drone strike in Pakistan may have killed the operational commander of the Haqqani network, the insurgent group behind some of the most high-profile attacks on Western and Afghan government targets in Afghanistan."

"In early October 2010, US forces launched a drone airstrike against a militant compound in North Waziristan, Pakistan. The intent of the strike was to kill members of a German al Qaeda cell that had plotted to assault European cities in a manner similar to the 2008 attacks in Mumbai, India. Jihadist web sites and news accounts indicated that some members of the cell were killed in the strike...

"A massive bomb ripped through a crowded Beirut street killed Lebanon's most senior intelligence official and at least seven others as Lebanon divisions over Syria's civil war spills over into factional conflict."

"Lebanon's politicians are scrambling to keep control of the country after the killing of General Wissam al-Hassan, the country's most senior spy chief, in Friday's devastating car bomb attack."

"Almost overnight, Beirut has become a city fractured and divided according to religion, and support or opposition to Syria's regime. The trigger was a car bomb that killed General Wissam al-Hassan, the Lebanese intelligence chief and a key opponent of Syria's regime, in the capital on Friday. Many Lebanese blamed President Bashar al-Assad for this assassination. Mr Assad is loyal to the Alawite sect, a strand of Shia Islam, and Lebanese Shia are tarred by association."

"It is difficult to find out about life in areas of Somalia under the control of al-Shabab, which has imposed strict Islamic law."

"But instead, the Tuaregs' struggle for an independent homeland has been hijacked by better-armed Islamists from Mali and abroad, creating a safe haven for militants in the Sahara that is already being compared to similar bastions elsewhere."

"A few days after desert gunmen swept out of the Sahara and captured Timbuktu, the city's conquerors broadcast a message over its radio station."

"A federal jury in Massachusetts convicted Tarek Mehanna on four terror-related charges and three charges of lying to authorities.

Prosecutors said the 24-year-old Mehanna and two friends conspired to go to Yemen so they could receive training at a terrorist camp with the intention of going to Iraq to fight against U.S. soldiers there. Prosecutors said when they couldn't find a camp,...

"No-one knows for sure yet who carried out the attack which resulted in the death of the US ambassador to Libya, but suspicion has already fallen on the radical Islamist group Ansar al-Sharia."

"Amina Farah Ali and Hawo Mohamed Hassan, both naturalized U.S. citizens, were found guilty on multiple charges over accusations of raising more than $8,600 for al-Shabaab from September 2008 to July 2009.

Ali, 35, and Hassan, 64, who both lived in Rochester, Minnesota, were accused of communicating with al-Shabaab individuals in Somalia and in turn going door-to-door in Somali...

"In fact, Chavez's strident anti-Americanism directly challenges the security of the United States, and Venezuela should be placed on the State Department's list of state sponsors of terrorism."

Former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf on Monday accused the U.S. of violating his country’s sovereignty by sending in special forces to kill Osama bin Laden.

"The power of social media hasn't been lost on Hamas. During the past year, young Palestinians in the Gaza Strip used Facebook, Twitter, and other similar sites to rally for a unified Palestinian government. The protests, which initially were suppressed, ultimately brought Hamas to the table with its Fatah rival, and were a Palestinian expression of pro-democracy movements in the Arab World."

"The mother of Moeed Abdul Salam tried to teach her son about religious tolerance and infaith harmony as he grew up in their well-off Texas household.

Salam certainly didn't descend into radical Islam for lack of other options. His mother Hasna Shaheen Salam ensured he attended a pricey boarding school and graduated from one of the state's most respected universities.

She and her...

The campaign against terrorism is instead much more like the cold war of the past century. Like the fight against Soviet communism, today's campaign against terrorism is likely to be nasty, brutish, and long.

"When Indonesian police arrested 11 people on suspicion of planning a series of terrorist attacks, long held suspicions that the next generation of jihadists was about to emerge had perhaps been confirmed."

Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld has approved the military's most ambitious plan yet to fight terrorism around the world and retaliate more rapidly and decisively in the case of another major terrorist attack on the United States, according to defense officials.

"Voters in the pivotal battleground states of Ohio and Florida show strong interest in global security issues, and want to hear the candidates' views on defense, Iran and terrorism in the final presidential debate, according to a new poll conducted jointly by leading Democratic and Republican pollsters for Harvard Kennedy School’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs."

"The alleged attempt by a Nigerian man to detonate a bomb on a U.S.-bound flight has frayed Nigeria's diplomatic ties with its No. 1 buyer of oil: the U.S."

"Are senior Obama administration officials considering transferring to Egypt a poisonously influential Islamist cleric serving a life term in federal prison for trying to unleash a war of urban terrorism in the United States?"

"General Ashfaq Kayani, Chief of the Pakistani Army, and a delegation of Pakistani ministers are in Washington, D.C. this week to begin a 'strategic dialogue' with the U.S. Although he holds no civilian office, Kayani is the head of Pakistan's strongest political institution, its military, and so has the credibility to negotiate on the behalf of the Government of Pakistan. The president, Asif...

"President Obama's comment to a Spanish-language television station in Miami that Venezuela doesn't pose a 'serious' threat to national security has provoked a storm of criticism from Republicans. According to Obama, 'what Mr. Chavez has done over the last several years has not had a serious national security impact on us. . . . My main concern when it comes to Venezuela is having the Venezuelan people have a voice in their affairs and that you end up ultimately having fair and free elections, which we don't always see.'"

"Pakistan wants the US to provide it with nuclear technology for a civilian energy programme and is to push the Obama administration this week for a deal.

Islamabad seeks a civilian nuclear deal to mirror the package granted to India by George Bush, a proposal that would prove contentious in Washington, given Pakistan's uneven record on combating extremist groups and its sale of nuclear...

"Pakistan's spymaster has postponed a trip to the United States in the latest sign of the dire state of relations between two supposed allies in the war against Islamist extremists."

"President Obama signs on from France after Congress passes the bill. Opposition to the government powers in the terrorist surveillance law brings together conservative Republicans and liberal Democrats."

"Congress's new Democratic majority is expanding its review of the Bush administration's push for broad executive power, as the Senate is set to look into how the Pentagon has increased its covert intelligence operations."

Since its establishment five years ago, the Department of Homeland Security has played a pivotal role in mobilizing the efforts of the United States government to prevent and deter terrorists and other dangerous people from attacking the country.

"The long-dormant Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board (PCLOB) announced that it will hold its first public meeting next week and it invited members of the public to provide input to help shape the Board’s near-term agenda."

"Somali Islamist insurgent group al-Shabab, which has joined al-Qaeda, has been pushed out of all of the main towns they once controlled in southern and central parts of the country but they still remain a potent threat to the UN-backed government."

"The recent spate of attacks on Muslim historic and religious sites in the ancient city of Timbuktu calls to mind the Taliban's destruction of the Bamiyan Buddhas in Afghanistan over a decade ago. The Taliban, of course, were obliterating the icons of a rival religion, as they saw it. The Salafist militias that have lately overrun Timbuktu and Mali are obliterating a rival tradition within their own faith."

"A wave of devastating weekend assaults in Nigeria killed more than 150 people, underlying how religious and economic grievances are coalescing into a dangerous mix that threatens the country's stability—and reflects other African security challenges."

"Mitt Romney and Republicans are taking sharp issue with President Obama's assertion earlier this week that leftist Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez was not much a security threat to the United States."

"At the end of his two terms in office, Ronald Reagan viewed with satisfaction the achievements of his innovative program known as the Reagan Revolution, which aimed to reinvigorate the American people and reduce their reliance upon Government."

Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld is considering ways to expand broadly the role of American Special Operations forces in the global campaign against terrorism, including sending them worldwide to capture or kill Al Qaeda leaders far from the battlefields of Afghanistan.

"In this essay, I will examine the history and uses of sanctions, some associated problems, and how sanctions can be made more effective instruments of policy."

"Despite apprehending some of his disciples and recruits, police are still struggling to arrest Indonesia's most wanted terrorism suspect Santoso, who is believed to be plotting a lethal bomb attack in the country."

"Sauerland, the Saar Land in English, is located in mid West Germany in the South Eastern part of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia.

On 09/04/2007 the German authorities arrested and uncovered an Islamic terror network that was plotting a series of terror attacks in Germany and in the middle of their last preparation to commit a massive car bombs attack on Ramstein military...

"Yesterday the Somali terror group Shabaab threatened to attack Britain for extraditing radical Muslim cleric Abu Hamza al Masri, who arrived in the US on Oct. 5 after being held for nine years in a British prison."

"Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gilani on Thursday said Pakistan was diligently pursuing the war against terrorism and urged the international community to lend more support.

'Pakistan has paid immensely in terms of casualties and economy. We are fighting the war, which will benefit the whole world,' the prime minister told a Chinese media delegation at the PM House here."

"Fears of a terrorist strike against Western embassies in Yemen have grown amid claims a convoy of lorries laden with explosives had been smuggled into the country's capital city, Sana'a."

"Sudan's longtime ties to Iran— and the two nations' roles in arming Islamic militants — have come under scrutiny in the wake of an explosion at a Khartoum weapons factory, blamed on an Israeli airstrike, and the dockings of two Iranian warships at a Sudanese port."

"An often-repeated concern that the U.S. Patriot Act gives the U.S. government unequaled access to personal data stored on cloud services is incorrect, with several other nations enjoying similar access to cloud data, according to a study released Wednesday."

"As if Hurricane Sandy's blackouts weren't worrisome enough, a new federal study warns the U.S. power grid is also vulnerable to terrorist attack. Yet it says fixing the problem won't be easy."

"Why hasn't President Obama intervened militarily in Syria?"

"Syrian troops and rebels clashed on Friday in the city of Aleppo, where several people died when a shell crashed into a bakery as hundreds of residents queued for bread, AFP correspondents said. They said around a dozen people, including three children, were killed and 20 wounded at the bakery in the eastern Tariq al-Bab district of the increasingly desperate city."

"Fighting raged in Lebanon as Syria sympathizers took on opponents in a sign that Syrian President Bashar Assad's slaughter of Sunnis is triggering violence outside his borders."

"The scene is part of a 45-minute video recently posted on jihadi websites by a group calling itself the Nasra Front, which now appears to be waging a propaganda campaign to exploit Syria's more than one-year-old uprising."

"At least 42 people including 12 soldiers and 30 rebels have been killed in fighting in the remote Tajik region of Gorno-Badakhshan, state television has reported.

Some unconfirmed reports speak of a far higher level of casualties, with dozens of people being killed in the violence.

It follows the fatal stabbing of a top security forces official on Saturday."

"On April 19, a Tajikistan court convicted 34 alleged members of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan of a variety of crimes including, murder, establishing an unlawful armed group, provoking sectarian conflict and attempting to overthrow the government (BBC Tajiki, April 19)."

While transnational terrorists have made their capture and elimination difficult, international law also contributes to this difficulty.

"Terrorism is not, as most people are inclined to believe, a new and unprecedented phenomenon. The term is over 200 years old but present day global networks are a more recent trend. However, there have been systematic political assassinations throughout history."

In sum, the current threat environment posed by terrorism and insurgency makes a new strategy, approach and new organizational and institutional behaviors necessary.

"On September 7th Hillary Clinton, America's secretary of state, said she would designate the Haqqani network, an Afghan militant group with its bases in the wild mountains of North Waziristan, in Pakistan, as a 'foreign terrorist organisation'."

"Over the last several years Hezbollah and its patrons in Iran have greatly expanded their operations in Latin America to the detriment of inter-American security and US strategic interests."

"Sony announced their network had been breached, but released limited details regarding the attack vector. This announcement was a precursor to a series of new attacks against other Sony online properties and ultimately the shutdown of the PlayStation Network. On May 13th, Veracode Researcher, Chris Lytle, published his blog post on the anatomy of the PSN attack."

"For eight years, General Pervez Musharraf monopolised the limelight on the world stage, keeping his generals out of public sight in sharp contrast to his military predecessors. When last week, he nervously passed on the symbolic army baton to his successor at a special ceremony, the world knew very little about the man who now occupies his country's most powerful office."

"In one of the most egregious violations of the First Amendment's guarantee of free speech seen in quite some time, Tarek Menanna, an American Muslim, was convicted this week in a federal court in Boston and then sentenced yesterday to 17 years in prison. He was found guilty of supporting Al Qaeda (by virtue of translating Terrorists' documents into English and expressing 'sympathetic views'...

"A group calling itself Lulz Security embarked on a nihilistic hacking spree against high-profile corporations and government agencies. Yesterday morning, it was boasting of its latest coup – bringing down the websites of the Brazilian government and the president – an action marked with a Twitter message beginning 'TANGO DOWN.'"

"The route of the terrorist from childhood to a specific violent act is emerging in rich detail from new research. Researchers have found the making of a terrorist involves a unique interplay between the beliefs and dynamic of the terrorist group and the psychological makeup of its members.

The most important new data come from detailed interviews with and psychological tests of more...

"Milton Friedman once said that there is 'nothing so permanent as a temporary government program.' I would add to this: there is nothing so permanent as a war on terror. Ask the British or the Israelis or any other government which has decided to wage a similar war.

The 2001 signing of the PATRIOT Act marked the beginning of a 'temporary' and unofficial state of emergency for the...

"A powerful car bomb in Beirut, the Lebanese capital, has shattered several years of relative calm in Lebanon, dramatically underscoring the danger of a spillover from the violence raging in neighbouring Syria. The mid-afternoon blast on Friday devastated a narrow residential street near Sassine Square, the busy focal point of the city's largely Christian Ashrafiyeh district. Initial reports said at least eight people had been killed and as many as 94 injured. Just as during the spate of bloody assassinations-by-car-bomb that shook Lebanon between 2004 and 2008, most of these victims were hapless bystanders. The real target was one man, Brigadier General Wissam al Hassan."

The U.S. intelligence community has made immense strides in detecting terrorists by scrutinizing their passports and other travel documents, and U.S. immigration officials at airports and border posts need to be trained in these arcane spotting techniques.

The FBI recently announced that it is engaged in a comprehensive realignment of its counterterrorism division -- the largest such reorganization since the September 11 attacks.

We should really try to get into the nature of this new threat in the post September 11th environment that we face, what is it about, who are these people, what drives their ideology to be what it is, and how do we then counter that threat…what can we do and can we in fact survive that.

"As one group of rebels proudly proclaimed the independent state of Azawad in the 'liberated' north of Mali last week, their allies were preparing for jihad by cutting off the hand of a 'criminal' and forcing women to wear the veil."

"An American citizen from an upscale suburb here was convicted on Tuesday of conspiring to support Al Qaeda and of other terrorism charges.

Federal prosecutors told the jury that Tarek Mehanna, 29, of Sudbury, traveled to Yemen in 2004 to train as a terrorist with the goal of attacking American soldiers in Iraq. Mr. Mehanna, a graduate of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and...

"Uganda's escalating crackdown on its gays, lesbians and transgenders has the U.S. indicating that it might just cut off that military aid."

"One of the more extreme government abuses of the post-9/11 era targets U.S. citizens re-entering their own country, and it has received far too little attention. With no oversight or legal framework whatsoever, the Department of Homeland Security routinely singles out individuals who are suspected of no crimes, detains them and questions them at the airport, often for hours, when they return...

"A handful of young Muslims from the U.S. are taking high-visibility propaganda and operational roles inside an al-Qaida-linked insurgent force in Somalia known as al-Shabab."

"And it's my pleasure today to introduce today's guest, John Brennan. He's assistant to the president for homeland security and counterterrorism and a deputy national security adviser."

"U.S. intelligence spending in the past year fell to $75.4 billion, the second straight year of decline since such budgets reached their highest level in the aftermath of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, according to figures released today."

"'A quarrel in a far-away country between people of whom we know nothing.'"

"The US government has long maintained, reasonably enough, that a defining tactic of terrorism is to launch a follow-up attack aimed at those who go to the scene of the original attack to rescue the wounded and remove the dead. Morally, such methods have also been widely condemned by the west as a hallmark of savagery. Yet, as was demonstrated yet again this weekend in Pakistan, this has...

"The US State Department is actively negotiating with Egyptian President Morsi's government about transferring Omar Abdel-Rahman from US custody to Egyptian custody."

"The Obama administration is to blacklist the Haqqani network as a terrorist organisation after a year of high-profile attacks on American troops, officials announced today, in a move certain to raise tensions with Pakistan."

"We now have an extraordinary situation that reveals the impunity with which political elites commit the most egregious crimes, as well as the special privileges to which they explicitly believe they — and they alone — are entitled. That a large bipartisan cast of Washington officials got caught being paid substantial sums of money by an Iranian dissident group that is legally designated by...

"The United States and the European Union have expressed concern at the political situation in Lebanon, where the opposition has called for the premier to step down over a deadly blast blamed on Syria."

Someone in Pakistan had published in a newspaper there an offer of a reward to anyone who killed an American, any American. So I just thought I would write to let them know what an American is, so they would know when they found one.

"Just consider what one single, isolated attack on American soil more than a decade ago did to Sullivan, Packer and company: the desire for violence which that one attack 11 years ago unleashed is seemingly boundless by time or intensity. Given the ongoing American quest for violence from that one-day attack, just imagine the impact which continuous attacks over the course of a full decade...

"American diplomats were told that one of the key reasons why they had failed to find bin Laden was that Pakistan's security services tipped him off whenever US troops approached."

"The theologian of terrorism inspired the 1993 and 9/11 World Trade Center attacks. The White House should state clearly that he will serve out his life term in the U.S."

Chart or Graph offers this very detailed infographic on 9/11 about what happened on that tragic day as well as what Americans think about the attacks today.

"Certain countries are emerging as clear sources of threats to sensitive data, in particular to intellectual property."

This timeline depicts all of the terrorist attacks on American soil that have resulted in one or more deaths.

This timeline provides a history of some of the most famous hacking cases since the 1960s.

"Table 10 categorizes the identified incidents of lone-wolf terrorism in terms of their ideological underpinnings."

Effective conflict management and, therefore, systemic peace result from a fundamental congruence between societal-system resilience and the systemic risk factors that would otherwise 'trigger' contention and 'fuel' the escalation to violence.

"Our results show that the total number of supply chain related attacks has increased steadily over the past decade, reaching 3299 attacks in 2010 (see Figure 1a), despite the sharp increase of security measures and control systems put into place after 9/11."

"On April 22, 2011 Sony announced their network had been breached, but released limited details regarding the attack vector."

When asked "about the likelihood of potential terrorist attack targets in the United States," Gen-Y and Moms generally believe that it is very likely.

It is important to recognize the efforts of the intelligence agencies in the United States, but a global network of terrorism requires cooperation from our allies and other nations in gathering and sharing information.

This map shows the location of the 10 worst terrorist attacks of all time. It also includes the number of deaths and injuries in each one.

Analysis Report White Paper

Young presents a very balanced and thoroughly-researched position on Letters of Marque and Reprisal, which has been raised as a policy tool for fighting terrorists and pirates.

A genealogy of the radical ideas that underline al-Qaeda’s justification for violence shows that the development of jihadi thought over the past several decades is characterized by the erosion of critical constraints used to limit warfare and violence in classical Islam.

"As one observer put it, France's anti-terrorism laws make the Patriot Act look 'namby-pamby" by comparison....Frequently, there are misconceptions about what the law allows, at home and abroad."

The SC adapted to transnational terrorism by demanding more from states and intervening deeper into their domestic realm, while at the same time offering more support with respect to implementation.

"Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) is a Salafi-jihadist militant group and U.S.-designated Foreign Terrorist Organization operating in North Africa's Sahara and Sahel. The group can trace its provenance back to Algeria's civil war, and has since become an al-Qaeda affiliate with broader regional and international ambitions."

"Al-Shabaab ... is an Islamic organization that controls much of southern Somalia, excluding the capital, Mogadishu. It has waged an insurgency against Somalia's transitional government and its Ethiopian supporters since 2006. It has waged an insurgency against Somalia's transitional government and its Ethiopian supporters since 2006."

The speakers in this panel focus on a wide variety of subjects including some background on terrorism, the challenges of dealing with transnational terrorism, the terrorists' use of technology and information, the impact on the economy, and strategies and challenges in Afghanistan.

U.S.-Tajik relations have developed considerably since September 11, 2001. The two countries now have a broad-based relationship, cooperating in such areas as counter-narcotics, counterterrorism, non-proliferation, and regional growth and stability.

The change in the requirements of international security has its source in a change in the nature of terrorism.

The challenge to the next US administration is to harness a vision for international cooperation on counter-terrorism and construct a roadmap for its strategic implementation.

The conclusion of this study is that while the Kenyan government's counterterrorism strategy is becoming increasingly more effective in combating transnational terrorism in terms of the strategy's ends and ways, it falls short of applying the appropriate means in reducing the underlying conditions that make Kenya an easy target for terrorist acts.

"On April 8, a front page article was published in the Wall Street Journal on the dangers posed by cyberspies to the U.S. electrical grid. According to senior intelligence officers who spoke with the Journal, 'Cyberspies have penetrated the U.S. electrical grid and left behind software programs that could be used to disrupt the system.'"

"The boom in drones has stirred a variety of concerns among critics, but the greatest has been over strikes carried out covertly by the CIA under a classified, but widely reported, program of strikes against suspected militants inside Pakistan.

"As we begin 2012, political risks dominate global headlines in a way we’ve not experienced in decades. Everywhere you look in today’s global economy, concerns over insular, gridlocked, or fractured politics affecting markets stare back at you."

Our Western democracies are not yet winning the war on global terrorism. To succeed, we need even stronger transatlantic cooperation on all fronts-diplomatic, law enforcement, financial, intelligence, and military.

We would do well to abandon the theory of 4GW altogether.

"This report captures the input of risk leaders in thought and practice, including members of the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Councils. It is also underpinned by the support and guidance of all the partners of the Risk Response Network."

"As the new year begins, al-Shabaab, a terror group fighting to overthrow the government of Somalia, has served notice that it intends to play an increasingly prominent role in international jihad."

"Russia is pursuing a Middle Eastern policy that is designed to reduce U.S. and Western influence in the Middle East, even at the risk of Islamist terrorism, which is a growing problem in Russia."

"Earlier this month, the publicity faction of al Qaeda of the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) posted their third edition of Inspire, the glossy magazine geared toward Muslim terrorists and terrorists wannabes of the West. It is promoted and accessible on a variety of Islamic terrorist websites, including some hosted in the U.S."

"Recent developments in the case of the notorious 'Italian Unabomber' have reasserted the perceived threat of lone wolf terrorism."

Americans and Pakistanis come to counterinsurgency and low-intensity conflict from different backgrounds and different experiences.

The following charts provide both contextual and dynamic bases for evaluating the quality of peace. They are constructed from information covering all countries in the world with populations greater than 500,000 persons in 2011.

This article examines what has been learned since 11 September 2001 about the nature of twenty-first-century terrorism, the challenges that it poses, and how it must be countered.

This report provides a variety of charts and statistics gleaned from a survey of Moms and individuals from Generation Y. The research gives a glimpse into some of the deepest concerns American citizens are facing in 2011, including the economy and national security.

The key to defeating the jihadi movement is identifying its strengths and weaknesses so that the former may be countered or co-opted and the latter exploited. In this article we argue that the people who know these strengths and weaknesses best are the jihadis themselves.

The 9/11 attacks on New York and Washington, D.C. were undoubtedly the most brazen and shocking terrorist attacks conducted by a sub-state group in history. Al Qaeda’s capacity to achieve this outcome depended in large part on its meticulous intelligence and counterintelligence preparations.

North Americans and Europeans have more com­mon cause in this long war than is widely assumed. Much like the Cold War, we will agree on: (1) the nature of the war, (2) the state of the threat, and (3) the character of the response.

"To better understand the roots and threat of militant Islam, here's a closer look at how modern terrorism has evolved in the Middle East and South Asia."

What are the 'root causes' of terrorism? Based on history and logic, they are not what most people assume; poverty, revolutionary nationalism and oppression. Instead, there is a brutal simplicity to terrorism: Terrorism is often seen as an effective tactic.

"Computer network exploitation represents the leading edge of signals intelligence in the information age. The proliferation of computer systems throughout governments, businesses, and civic organizations represents a boon for would-be cyber spies."

In brief, the previously national scope of most terrorist activity is a thing of the past. Terrorism today, involving collaboration between widely separated and often ideologically divergent groups, is effectively transnational in scope.

Following 9/11, terrorism became a major global security concern, and this is reflected in the European media discourse on the subject. We identified the main aspects of this discourse, contextualized it and compared it to new theoretical developments in the academic field.

Supply chains must be secured against any form of man-made and natural disruption. This certainly isn’t a new revelation. Some hundred years ago commercial shipping was threatened by pirates and renegades like Anne Bonny, Sir Francis Drake or Klaus Störtebeker, and so transport ships were equipped with cannons and crews ready for a fight.

A review of publicly available information on at least 19 terrorist conspiracies thwarted by U.S. law enforcement suggests that the truth lies somewhere in between these two arguments.

"As we face one of the worst recessions in recent memory, protecting a company’s critical information assets like intellectual property and sensitive data has never been more important, yet challenging. A single breach or loss can cause irreparable financial damage to a company’s reputation, its share price and customer confidence."

Lind argues that transnational terrorism represents 4th generation warfare, while the United States military is still in the mindset somewhere between 2nd generation and 3rd generation warfare.

"In an assessment on Global Water Security, U.S. Intelligence Community predicts that exploding populations in developing countries coupled with climate change would be naturally transformed into drought, floods and lack of fresh water."

"At the working level, federal agency officers from DOD, DOS, DHS, AID and the intelligence community talk past one another -- when they don't end up working at cross purposes. The following twelve propositions constitute a provisional attempt to provide a common conceptual basis for more effective interagency coordination."


"While many were shocked by the massacre at the Sikh temple, our guest, Daryl Johnson, had warned years ago that such an attack was imminent. While working as a senior analyst in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security in 2009, Johnson authored a report warning about the increasing dangers of violent right-wing extremism in the United States, sparking a political firestorm in the process....

"National Security Agency whistle blowers Thomas Drake, former senior official; Kirk Wiebe, former senior analyst; and William Binney, former technical director, return to 'Viewpoint' to talk about their allegations that the NSA has conducted illegal domestic surveillance. All three men are providing evidence in a lawsuit by the Electronic Frontier Foundation against the NSA.

Drake says...

"Charlie Rose and Erica Hill speak with Steve Kroft about a cyber attack that crippled the Iranian nuclear program for a time."

Michael Kraig defines local, state, and transnational terrorism. He also explains the differences between the three in an ideological sense and how transnational terrorism uses religious extremism to drive their efforts.

This segment documents and preserves how just about each and every network covered the moment the South Tower was struck on live television.

Terrorism is a transnational threat in which Europe and the United States face shared challenges.

"Federal prosecutors in Boston alleged that Tarek Mehanna, 27, from the suburb of Sudbury, had sought training in terrorist camps and worked with conspirators from 2001 to May 2008 to 'kill, kidnap, maim or injure' people in foreign countries."

"In this address, Bruce examined the future of cyber war and cyber security. Mr. Schneier explored the current debate on the threat of cyber war, asking whether or not the threat had been over-stated. He then explored the range of attacks that have taken place, including the Latvian DOS attack and the Stuxnet worm. The address concluded with an exploration of the future of international...

This short video offers some insight into the problems American forces face when hunting down transnational terrorists who slip across international borders.

President Obama praises those Americans who carried out the operation to kill Osama bin Laden, tells the families of the victims of September 11, 2001 that they have never been forgotten, and calls on Americans to remember the unity of that tragic day.

This is President Bush's address to the nation on 9/11, the day of the terrorist attacks against the Pentagon and the World Trade Center towers.

CNN offers a brief video demonstrating the devastating effects a cyber-attack could have on America's electrical grid.

New security environments and new roles and expectations require new forms of education for the military profession. Officers must have a total grasp of the struggle, not just the terrorist acts.

Ayman al-Zawahiri invited journalists and Jihadist enthusiasts to ask him questions via the primary Jihadist web forums. Zawahiri promised to personally answer some of those questions in a subsequent statement.

"Descendant Sharon Malone talks about the true purpose of terrorism and its results."

This 2002 documentary, nominated for an Academy Award, investigates the radical figures behind The Weather Underground. Growing out of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) in the 1960s, the Weather Underground sought to overthrow the U.S. government.

Nominated for an Academy Award, this documentary directed by William Gazecki takes an in depth look at the Waco standoff between the Branch Davidians and the FBI. Were the Davidians terrorists? Were they dangerous? Did the government have the right to invade their property?

Primary Document

Transnational terrorism has recently emerged as a serious security threat in Southeast Asia. This thesis examines the conditions, causes, and nature of the transnational terrorist threat in the region.

Annual Address to the Federal Assembly by Russian President Vladimir Putin. Putin outlines goals for the country in the years ahead and reassures previous national goals.

"Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs) are designated by the Secretary of State in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA)."

This paper addresses the Department of Defense (DOD) all-source, analytic intelligence apparatus and assesses its efforts to combat transnational terrorism.

This report addresses the various terrorist organizations throughout the globe, the various problems they pose, and strategic plans for undermining their efforts.

In the ensuing months after the attacks, the Nation has undertook actions across all aspects of national power to defeat the global threat of transnational terrorism.

"Published reports have suggested that in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the Pentagon has expanded its counterterrorism intelligence activities as part of what the Bush Administration termed the global war on terror. Some observers have asserted that the Department of Defense (DOD) may have been conducting certain kinds of counterterrorism intelligence activities that would statutorily qualify as 'covert actions,' and thus require a presidential finding and the notification of the congressional intelligence committees."

The Director of National Intelligence Dennis C. Blair today unveiled the 2009 National Intelligence Strategy - the blueprint that will drive the priorities for the nation's 16 intelligence agencies over the next 4 years.

"Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs) are foreign organizations that are designated by the Secretary of State in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), as amended. FTO designations play a critical role in our fight against terrorism and are an effective means of curtailing support for terrorist activities and pressuring groups to get out of the terrorism...

"An Act To provide for the implementation of the recommendations of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States."

"The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945."

"The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 revealed the life-and-death importance of enhancing U.S. intelligence operations. Since that day, a tremendous amount of attention has been focused on the need for constructive changes in law enforcement intelligence.

Intelligence operations have been reviewed, studied, and slowly but steadily transformed. Most efforts have focused on...

"Chairman McKeon, Ranking Member Smith, and Members of the Committee, thank you for inviting me to testify today on the subject of the Future of National Defense and the U.S. Military Ten Years After 9/11.

On September 11, 2001, I was working in the Pentagon as part of a small team drafting the 2001 Quadrennial Defense Review. The 9/11 attacks were a watershed event for the Department...

"Congressman Jim Langevin (D-RI) today met with a bipartisan group of House leaders on the issue of congressional continuity to push his eCongress proposal, which seeks to ensure the continuity of congressional business in the event of a natural disaster or terrorist strike on Washington, D.C."

"Former intelligence officials have suggested that Hezbollah has increased its presence in Central and South America, and are now operating in Mexico and on our southern border."

"The Narcotics Rewards Program was established by Congress in 1986 as a tool to assist the U.S. Government identify and bring to justice the major violators of U.S. narcotics laws responsible for bringing hundreds of tons of illicit drugs into the United States each year."

To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2012 for military activities of the Department of Defense, for military construction, and for defense activities of the Department of Energy, to prescribe military personnel strengths for such fiscal year....

This document analyzes the ways in which transnational terrorists operate and how the United States can combat their efforts to attack the United States.

America is at war with a transnational terrorist movement fueled by a radical ideology of hatred, oppression, and murder.

"The 112th Congress has focused on measures to reduce the federal budget deficit. This backdrop may continue to influence congressional debate over a top-ranking U.S. aid recipient, Pakistan—a country vital to U.S. national security interests but that some say lacks accountability and even credibility as a U.S. ally."

"Pakistan's nuclear arsenal probably consists of approximately 90-110 nuclear warheads, although it could be larger. Islamabad is producing fissile material, adding to related production facilities, and deploying additional delivery vehicles. These steps could enable Pakistan to undertake both quantitative and qualitative improvements to its nuclear arsenal. Whether and to what extent Pakistan...

"The Philippine Government faces threats from several groups, some of which are on the US Government's Foreign Terrorist Organization list. Manila has waged a decades-long struggle against ethnic Moro insurgencies in the southern Philippines, which has led to a peace accord with the Moro National Liberation Front and on-again/off-again peace talks with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. The decades-long Maoist-inspired New People's Army insurgency also operates through much of the country. The Philippines faces increased tension with China over disputed territorial claims in the South China Sea."

"The Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board is an advisory body to assist the President and other senior Executive branch officials in ensuring that concerns with respect to privacy and civil liberties are appropriately considered in the implementation of all laws, regulations, and executive branch policies related to war against terrorism."

"Recommended by the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (9/11 Commission), the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board (PCLOB) was initially established as an agency within the Executive Office of the President (EOP) in 2004. Critics, however, maintained that the board appeared to be a presidential appendage, devoid of the capability to exercise independent judgment and assessment or to provide impartial findings and recommendations."

"This memorandum examines certain existing statutory procedures that govern how the executive branch is to keep Congress informed of U.S. intelligence activities, reviews pertinent legislative history underpinning the development of those procedures, and looks at the notification process that reportedly was followed in informing certain Members of Congress of the President's decision to authorize the National Security Agency (NSA) to collect signals intelligence within the United States."

"The Syria conflict risks setting the region 'ablaze', International peace envoy Lakhdar Brahimi has warned, as clashes broke out across the border with Lebanon."

"Tajikistan is a significant country in Central Asia by virtue of its geographic location bordering China and Afghanistan and its ample water and other resources, but it faces ethnic and clan schisms, deep poverty, poor governance, and other severe challenges. Tajikistan was one of the poorest of the new states that gained independence at the end of 1991 after the break-up of the former Soviet...

This second edition of Terrorism provides an overview of the terrorist incidents and preventions designated by the FBI as having taken place in the United States and its territories during the years 2002 through 2005 and that are matters of public record.

"We present the narrative of this report and the recommendations that flow from it to the President of the United States, the United States Congress, and the American people for their consideration. Ten Commissioners—five Republicans and five Democrats chosen by elected leaders from our nation's capital at a time of great partisan division—have come together to present this report without dissent."

This testimony primarily discusses the larger al-Qaeda Central terrorist organization, how and where they operate, and what we can do to foil their efforts against the United States and our allies.

"During the Carter administration, Congress passed the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, which created a new federal court to approve electronic surveillance of citizens and resident aliens alleged to be acting on behalf of a foreign power. Until now, the FISA court granted surveillance authority if foreign intelligence was the primary purpose of an...

"However, continuing advances in telecommunications technology have impaired and in some instances prevented telecommunications carriers from assisting law enforcement in conducting court-authorized electronic surveillance."

"The Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), led by Joseph Kony, is a small, dispersed armed group in central Africa that originated 24 years ago in Uganda. It has drawn the attention of Members of Congress and other U.S. policymakers due to its infliction of widespread human suffering and its potential threat to regional stability. The group is infamous for its brutal attacks on civilians and mass...

This paper examines an al-Qaida video entitled "The Power of Truth" and responses by al-Qaida leader Ayman al-Zawahiri.

"The emergence of amorphous and largely unknown terrorist individuals and groups operating independently (freelancers) and the new recruitment patterns of some groups, such as recruiting suicide commandos, female and child terrorists, and scientists capable of developing weapons of mass destruction, provide a measure of urgency to increasing our understanding of the psychological and...

This morning I would like to discuss the domestic and international terrorist threat facing the United States and the measures the FBI is taking to address this threat.

I want to speak more broadly about the transnational threats facing your companies and how they affect America's economic security.

The threat imposed by transnational terrorists spreads beyond the United States to nearly every corner of the globe. The Commonwealth of Australia addresses security issues related to transnational terrorism in this document.

"Consistent with U.S. national interests, we have adopted a two-pronged strategy for Yemen: helping the government confront the immediate security threat represented by Al Qaida, and mitigating serious political, economic and governance issues that the country faces over the long terms, the drivers of instability."

"Honduras has traditionally been an ally of the United States."

"The United States established diplomatic relations with Syria in 1944 following U.S. determination that Syria had achieved effective independence from a French-administered mandate. Syria severed diplomatic relations with the United States in 1967 in the wake of the Arab-Israeli War. Relations were reestablished in 1974. Syria has been on the U.S. list of state sponsors of terrorism since the list's inception in 1979. Because of its continuing support and safe haven for terrorist organizations, Syria is subject to legislatively mandated penalties, including export sanctions under the Syrian Accountability Act and ineligibility to receive most forms of U.S. aid or to purchase U.S. military equipment."

"The United States established diplomatic relations with Uzbekistan in 1992 following its independence from the Soviet Union."

"Congress and U.S. policymakers may be concerned with prospects for stabilizing Yemen and establishing strong bilateral relations with future Yemeni leaders."



Could cyber-attacks be used to cause physical damage? What other vulnerabilities might be exploited in a cyber-attack? Could an attack disrupt infrastructure such as power grids? All these questions and more are answered in the FAQ below.

Is the threat of an EMP a legitimate concern? What kind of infrastructural damage is an EMP capable of? How long would the consequences of such an attack last? All these questions and more will be answered in this FAQ.

One of the most serious threats to national security, individual privacy, and protection of one's assets comes from Intellectual Property (I.P.) espionage. What kind of information may be stolen? Who is or has the capability of engaging in effective I.P. espionage? Has this already happened? What can the United States do? All these questions and more are answered in this FAQ.

Iran has been talked about for decades. Relations between Iran and the United States have been tense since the early 1950s. Some believe that Iran poses an existential threat to the U.S.; others maintain that, despite its rhetoric, it is mostly harmless. Does Iran pose a significant threat? What are the sentiments of its leaders and its citizens? Do they agree? Is Iran working on a...

Missile defense. It's been talked about for decades, some of us even grew up watching Patriot missiles shoot down Iraqi Scud missiles in the first Gulf War. But where do things stand today? Is it still needed? Should I care? Those questions and more are answered in the FAQ below.



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Education history in America is important to know. ITO traces how education has changed from the colonial period to present day America.
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A great way to make a difference on your campus by spreading the ideas of individual rights, limited government, and free markets is to tutor. Plus, you can occasionally make a little bit of money. Depending on the subject matter, you will be discussing a variety of ideas, key thinkers, and theories. As anyone who has tutored knows, there are almost always opportunities to expand upon a topic....
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We've built Intellectual Takeout to provide you with quick, easy access to information. In time, we hope to become your one-stop-shop for the ideas of freedom. If your professor allows you to bring your laptop to class (if not, you can use an iPhone), we recommend keeping a tab open to Intellectual Takeout. As we continue to generate new content on the site, you will be able to fact check the...
When it comes to campus life injustices, student fees rank high on any list. On most campuses across the country a mandatory student fee is assessed to each student at the beginning of the year. A portion of this fee, which may be several hundred dollars, will go toward funding various political, religious, and interest groups.  A college requiring you to support groups espousing ideas which...
If you're not happy with the direction of the country and you want to take back your future, at some point you will have to do something. It's not enough to just know that we're going in the wrong direction. You actually have to step out and get involved. Most college campuses have conservative and libertarian student groups. Find one of them to join. Below is a list of some of the larger non-...
Now that you're at college and the initial excitement has worn off, maybe you're thinking that the course selection is a bit biased and you'd like some options. So how do you (the consumer) get the college (the business) to change up its offerings? It certainly won't be easy. Nevertheless it's something that should be done--particularly since you're footing the bill. A good, education in a free...
Whatever activism you choose to do on campus, you need to get your story out. A popular tactic used by the Left is to isolate and intimidate freedom-loving students. You're not alone and there are a lot of people in your city, state, and country that can probably support your efforts. They just need to know what is happening. Whenever you can, record in-class bias, discrimination against...
The reality is that most students (and people for that matter) won't speak out. It's called human nature and it was recognized in the Declaration of Independence: "...all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed." While you might feel alone when debating a teacher,...
In the land of the free and the home of the brave, speech codes are a particularly odious example of politically correct repression on many a college campus. In some ways, college campuses are the least free places for thinking and speech in America. Your best friend for fighting your school's repressive speech codes is the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE). Here's a short clip...
Running for office isn't easy, even in college. Not everyone is cut out for it, either. For those of you who are, this completely non-partisan section is for you. If you are inclined to pursue student government, we're not going to spend time on telling you how to get elected. A good place to go for ideas and training is Rather, we want to help you in office, as a believer in...