Cyber-Attacks & Warfare

Most Internet users have seen it at some point, if not often. Many have faced more serious threats and in some cases, had their entire lives changed by this problem. Although it sounds like an idea out of an old science fiction book, the issue of cyber-crime is a growing phenomenon that even now threatens the most powerful governments across the world.

The many problems a cyber-attack could cause presents individuals with several important questions that must be considered as cyber-technology continues to advance. On an individual level, what can be done to prevent a cyber-attack? How can you protect yourself, your family, or your business? However, at the national level, the stakes are raised. Some have argued that a state-sponsored cyber-attack is an act of war

Cyber-attacks began decades ago. Rudimentary viruses were distributed by random individuals hoping to annoy the technologically inept, middle-aged computer greenhorn, while also using their computer knowledge in a less productive, albeit more fun, way. Cyber-attacks have now become more malicious and much more of a threat. Credit card information, personal records, and sensitive business documents began to be at risk. By 2010, 1 in every 10 American consumers had been a victim of identity theft. Over $50 billion was stolen from individuals and businesses in 2009, and in spite of a rapid expansion of new businesses producing protective software, cyber-attacks have only grown in number. In fact, LifeLock (identity security) CEO Todd Davis offered a challenge to any anonymous hacker to steal his identity. It was successfully accepted 13 times.

But cyber-attacks have not stopped with individuals or small businesses. In recent years we have seen some of the largest, most protected corporations around the world attacked. Moreover, dozens of national governments, including America's, have been electronically attacked, allowing the intruder access to sensitive military information, defense secrets, or even embarrassing diplomatic events. Some of these instances have been linked to foreign governments, while others have been carried out by independent people from groups such as WikiLeaks.

Currently there is debate surrounding the legality of these events and how to respond to them. Due to the fact that these situations could compromise U.S. national security, even if it relates to a private corporation, some argue that these cyber-hackings must be stopped by a larger role of government. Others contend that revelations by organizations like WikiLeaks encourage more government transparency and stifle the bent toward corruption in government bureaucracies.

Going a step further, there is significant evidence that several militaries are beginning to use this technology against other nations. North Korea and Iran, despite sparse evidence that they have advanced capabilities, have openly boasted of their superior "cyber-warriors." Russia, too, has warned of their potential in the cyber-realm, famously using it against Estonia’s government following Estonia’s decision to disassemble a Soviet-era statue in Tallinn. Most notably, China has a massive cyber-force as part of the People's Liberation Army.

Despite officially denying any state-sponsored attacks, U.S. officials remain convinced China has been behind several of the most destructive and intrusive cyber-attacks. The United States is certainly a player in this as well. There is vast evidence that the U.S. military was involved in the infamous cyber-attack against an Iranian nuclear plant, setting back months of progress.

This topic will investigate what a cyber-attack is, what it is capable of doing, and how it could potentially affect the U.S. and the personal lives of its citizens.

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"In 2010, about 92 percent of those cases involved criminals trying to steal money over the internet, but this year everything changed.

The first signs emerged in December 2010, when activists with the online collective Anonymous called for digital sit-ins — known as distributed denial of service attacks — on the websites of companies that had refused to process payments for Wikileaks....

"Experts say that concentrated cyber-attacks have the ability to cripple a nation's ability to defend itself and destroy its economy and national wealth. Here is a list of some large recent cyber attacks."

"Senate Republicans recently blocked cybersecurity legislation, but the issue might not be dead after all. The White House hasn't ruled out issuing an executive order to strengthen the nation's defenses against cyberattacks if Congress refuses to act."

"Iran has been targeted by a second computer virus in a 'cyber war' waged by its enemies, its commander of civil defense said on Monday.

Gholamreza Jalali told the semi-official Mehr news agency that the new virus, called 'Stars,' was being investigated by experts. Last year, Iran revealed that its computers were attacked by the Stuxnet worm, which attack the Bushehr nuclear reactor."...

"Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said Tuesday that his country has 'been able to control' the U.S. drone that Iran claims it recently brought down, Venezuelan state TV reported.

'There are people here who have been able to control this spy plane,' Ahmadinejad told VTV. 'Those who have been in control of this spy plane surely will analyze the plane's system. Furthermore, the...

"When the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) this week began taking military action in the Gaza strip against Hamas (as the IDF announced on Twitter), Anonymous declared its own war as part of #OpIsrael. Among the casualties are thousands of email addresses and passwords, hundreds of Israeli Web sites, government-owned as well as privately owned pages, as well as databases belonging to Bank Jerusalem and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs."

"Hacktivists are continuing their mission to take on politicians causing the collapse of constitutional rights in America, with operatives from the online collective Anonymous keeping up a campaign against the signers of controversial legislation."

"With thousands of rockets flying between both Israeli Defense Forces and Hamas fighters in the Gaza Strip this week, we are seeing a new form of warfare express itself online. According to a press release by the activist group Anonymous, it has declared a cyber war against Israeli officials dubbed #OpIsrael."

"New documentary 'We Are Legion' puts an actual human face on Anonymous, the hacktivist group whose members usually are seen wearing Guy Fawkes masks — if they are seen at all.

Considering Anonymous’ retaliatory acts against websites run by the Department of Justice and the entertainment industry just last week in response to the government takedown of file-sharing site Megaupload, 'We...

"Just minutes after the U.S. Department of Justice repossessed the domains of Megaupload, Megavideo, Megaporn and a collection of other popular filesharing sites, the hacker collective Anonymous got to work on a few takedowns of its own."

"No nation state has ever been definitively linked to an act of cyber warfare, but the internet is certainly being used as a battlefield. Even though governments are not owning up to it, two recent events make state involvement look more likely than ever."

"It's a problem for U.S. retailers when Communist China makes fake designer handbags and illegal copies of our music CDs, but it's a much bigger problem when the fakes are chips installed in our military weapons. The American people are starting to discover that counterfeit computer components bought from the Chinese are used in our warplanes, ships and communication networks."

"A senior cyber-security official in China said recently that the country wants to work with other nations to improve cyber security. Yet along with this pledge came another example of the back and forth between nation-states that has become a common feature of many public discussions about security. This time however, it was China pointing fingers at the United States."

"China appears to be within two years of deploying submarine-launched nuclear weapons, adding a new leg to its nuclear arsenal that should lead to arms-reduction talks, a draft report by a congressionally mandated U.S. commission says."

"Lawmakers clashed with Chinese telecommunication executives Thursday in a high-profile grilling of two Chinese companies that U.S. officials say pose a foreign spying threat to the U.S."

"There's been an interesting new development in China's use of cyber space as an element in its intelligence and security operations. The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is reportedly funding a vast complex of part-time cyber-devotees to supplement and compliment the official structure of cyber interception and invasion.

Equally as interesting is the willingness of the Chinese...

"Researchers in Toronto have released a document that describes what may be the first real evidence of a government-operated cyber-espionage network in action. In a ten-month investigation, the team documented the operation of what they dubbed GhostNet, and its various worldwide infection."

"A vast Chinese cyber-espionage network, codenamed GhostNet, has penetrated 103 countries and infects at least a dozen new computers every week, according to researchers."

"China is directing 'the single largest, most intensive foreign intelligence gathering effort since the Cold War' against the United States, according to a report released yesterday by Medius Research.

The report, sponsored by progressive political organization Patriot Majority, traces a 15-year pattern of events that was triggered by China’s 'humiliation' during the 1995-96 Taiwan...

"A recent report from the software security firm McAfee has raised awareness about the potential for hacking of vital information about governments and businesses."

"Computer worms are programs that reproduce, execute independently, and travel across network connections. The key difference between a virus and worm is the manner in which each reproduces and spreads. A virus is dependent upon the host file or boot sector and the transfer of files between computers to spread, whereas a computer worm can execute completely independently and spread on its own...

"Here's an updated version of our Cyber Attacks graphic showing a world map and chart illustrating targeted cyber attacks on more than 70 companies, government bodies and organizations the last five years as compiled by software maker McAfee."

"Assorted 'cyber attacks' have attracted much attention in the past few months. One headline in this genre recently proclaimed 'Anonymous Declares War on Orlando.' This is wrong on so many levels that it almost defies analysis. A more precise accounting would show that there have been no cyber wars and perhaps two or three cyber attacks since the Internet first appeared.

The most ironic...

"The Pentagon has concluded that computer sabotage coming from another country can constitute an act of war, a finding that for the first time opens the door for the U.S. to respond using traditional military force.

The Pentagon's first formal cyber strategy, unclassified portions of which are expected to become public next month, represents an early attempt to grapple with a changing...

"A day after the Pentagon acknowledged that an unmanned American reconnaissance drone went missing while on an operation in western Afghanistan late last week, Defense officials still smarting from the incident have come forward to dismiss Iranian claims that the drone was brought down by hostile activity. And American cyber experts similarly expressed skepticism over Iranian contentions that...

"The House of Representatives on Thursday approved legislation protecting US businesses and agencies from cyber-attacks, a measure that critics say erodes civil liberties by allowing firms to pass on private data."

"Ever since the discovery of the Stuxnet cyber attack on Iran's nuclear enrichment program and the assignation of Iran's chief Stuxnet Investigator, Iran has been hell-bent on developing offensive and defensive cyber capabilities.

Over this past year or so numerous comments about the cyber domain that have come out of Tehran and recently the leader of Iran's Cyber Defense Organization...

"When a hacker manages to penetrate Air Force computer networks, it generally takes experts more than a month to piece together what went wrong.

A forensics investigation into a network breach lasts an average of 45 days, said Arthur L. Wachdorf, senior advisor for intelligence and cyber-operations for the 24th Air Force, the organization that operates and defends the service’s networks...

"When will China emerge as a military threat to the U.S.? In most respects the answer is: not anytime soon—China doesn’t even contemplate a time it might challenge America directly. But one significant threat already exists: cyberwar. Attacks—not just from China but from Russia and elsewhere—on America’s electronic networks cost millions of dollars and could in the extreme cause the collapse...

"...today’s graphic illustrates how serious the issue is and how influential the targets. Major credit cards, gaming platforms, governments, banks and news organizations have all been the victims of cyber attacks. It’s a dangerous problem that seems to be getting worse."

"The first sign of trouble was a mysterious signal emanating from deep within the U.S. military’s classified computer network. Like a human spy, a piece of covert software in the supposedly secure system was 'beaconing' — trying to send coded messages back to its creator."

"A bill establishing security standards to prevent large-scale cyber attacks on the nation's critical infrastructure — including water supplies and the electrical grid — failed in the U.S. Senate Thursday, despite strong endorsements from top military and national security officials."

"The looming threat of sequestration could short-circuit one of the few cybersecurity agreements between lawmakers and the White House: the need for a bigger budget to protect government and private computer systems."

"The Internet allows businesses of all sizes and from any location to reach new and larger markets and provides opportunities to work more efficiently by using computer-based tools. Whether a business is thinking of adopting cloud computing or just using email and maintaining a website, cybersecurity should be a part of the plan. Theft of digital information has become the most commonly...

"Last Friday, Heritage's Steve Bucci wrote a piece on the defeat of the cybersecurity legislation in the Senate and called for President Obama to respect the will of the people's duly elected representatives. However, President Obama seems to have missed that blog, since over the weekend, White House press secretary Jay Carney sent an e-mail indicating that the President is indeed considering...

"The signs are growing that President Obama may once again trot out his new favorite tool—the executive order—to override the will of the people as represented by Congress."

"Throughout history new technologies have revolutionised warfare, sometimes abruptly, sometimes only gradually: think of the chariot, gunpowder, aircraft, radar and nuclear fission. So it has been with information technology. Computers and the internet have transformed economies and given Western armies great advantages, such as the ability to send remotely piloted aircraft across the world to...

"The number of daily targeted network security attacks has increased four-fold compared to January this year, with an average of 94 targeted attacks blocked each day during November, Symantec Corp's November 2011 Symantec Intelligence Report reveals.

Further analysis reveals that in Ireland, at least one attack is blocked nearly every 62 days, and one in 5,104 people may be the...

"Could the U.S. elections be hacked, allowing attackers to adjust ballot counts and alter election results?"

"Cyberspies have penetrated the U.S. electrical grid and left behind software programs that could be used to disrupt the system, according to current and former national-security officials.

The spies came from China, Russia and other countries, these officials said, and were believed to be on a mission to navigate the U.S. electrical system and its controls. The intruders haven't sought...

"Many of the attacks have come from Russia and are being hosted by Russian state computer servers, Tallinn says. Moscow denies any involvement.

Estonia says the attacks began after it moved a Soviet war memorial in Tallinn. The move was condemned by the Kremlin.

A Nato spokesman said the organisation was giving Estonia technical help.

'In the 21st century it's not just...

"One or more insiders with high-level access are suspected of assisting the hackers who damaged some 30,000 computers at Saudi Arabia's national oil company last month, sources familiar with the company's investigation say."

"For at least five years, a high-level hacking campaign—dubbed Operation Shady rat—has infiltrated the computer systems of national governments, global corporations, nonprofits, and other organizations, with more than 70 victims in 14 countries. Lifted from these highly secure servers, among other sensitive property: countless government secrets, e-mail archives, legal contracts, and design...

"Over the weekend, a draft of a cybersecurity executive order was shown to members of the press. Leaked reports of secretive decision making are what the U.S. gets when the President decides to ignore the democratic process and implement rules by executive fiat. The U.S. also gets policies that are often incomplete and poorly thought out.

Reports indicate that the executive order will...

"A widespread and unusually resilient computer attack that began July 4 knocked out the Web sites of several government agencies, including some that are responsible for fighting cyber crime, The Associated Press has learned.

The Treasury Department, Secret Service, Federal Trade Commission and Transportation Department Web sites were all down at varying points over the holiday weekend...

"Flame, a newly-discovered computer virus built for espionage has been named as the most complicated piece of malicious software ever created, and speculation as to who is behind it is sweeping the web."

"It is no secret that modern warfare is increasingly dependent on advanced computers — and no country's armed forces are more reliant on the digital age for information superiority than those of the U.S. This is both the American military's greatest strength — and potentially its greatest weakness.

Today, the Pentagon uses more than 5 million computers on 100,000 networks at as many as...

"Cyber spies have once again hacked into a major US system – the target this time being the $300 billion joint strike fighter programme of the US forces and the British Royal Navy, which is aimed at homogenising the air defence needs of the two armed forces. The spy ring, widely dubbed GhostNet, is reported to be based in China, though the Chinese government has denied any involvement."

"Google moved quickly to announce that it would stop censoring its Chinese ­service after realising dissidents were at risk from attempts to use the company's technology for political ­surveillance, according to a source with direct ­knowledge of the internet giant's most senior management.

As the US intervened in Google's challenge to Beijing, the source told the Guardian the company's...

"Hackers seeking source code from Google, Adobe and dozens of other high-profile companies used unprecedented tactics that combined encryption, stealth programming and an unknown hole in Internet Explorer, according to new details released by the anti-virus firm McAfee."

"Widespread cyber attacks against government and entertainment industry organisations are likely to continue after 'hacktivist' group Anonymous yesterday took down several high-profile United States websites.

Anonymous was protesting against the arrest of Megaupload.com founder Kim Dotcom (Kim Schmitz) and three others in Auckland yesterday.

Dotcom (38) and Bram van der Kolk (29...

"This was not the first botnet strike ever, nor was it the largest. But never before had an entire country been targeted on almost every digital front all at once, and never before had a government itself fought back. 'The attacks were aimed at the essential electronic infrastructure of the Republic of Estonia,' Aaviksoo tells me later. 'All major commercial banks, telcos, media outlets, and...

"Defence Minister A K Antony recently told the Lok Sabha that steps had been taken to strengthen the security of the network at the Eastern Naval Command at Vishakapatanam in the wake of intelligence inputs regarding possible hacking.

He also said in a written reply that the matter has been investigated.

The first signs of this very important network being hacked came to light in...

"A group of researchers has discovered serious security holes in six top industrial control systems used in critical infrastructure and manufacturing facilities and, thanks to exploit modules they released on Thursday, have also made it easy for hackers to attack the systems before they’re patched or taken offline.

The vulnerabilities were found in widely used programmable logic...

"The cybersecurity bill seeks to protect the nation from cyberattack, but concerns over how personal information is shared with the government and corporations has sparked opposition and a veto threat from the Obama administration."

"American companies should avoid doing business with China's two leading technology firms because they pose a national security threat to the United States, the House Intelligence Committee is warning in a report to be issued Monday."

Wired published this fascinating article on the small Romanian town, Râmnicu Vâlcea, and its role in the current mess of cyber-warfare and intellectual property theft. Many of the world's most dangerous hackers have sought safety and anonymity here. The article investigates their lifestyle, the Romanian police who attempt to crack down on this illegal activity, and how these young...

This article details the power of Stuxnet, showing how the worm damaged the Iranian nuclear facilities. Iranian engineers were baffled over the failure of countless numbers of uranium enrichment centrifuges, significantly setting back their progress. Little did they know at the time, but their largest nuclear plant at Nantanz had been infiltrated by this extremely destructive new computer...

"A cyber attack earlier this month highlighted the vulnerability of the Saudi oil industry, on which so much of the world depends. A recent simulation showed that a full-scale terror attack at Abqaiq, where Saudi Arabia processes six million barrels of oil a day, would hugely bolster Iran and bring economic ruin to parts of the world."

"A botnet which experts believe sent out 18% of the world's spam email has been shut down, a security firm said.

Grum's control servers were mainly based in Panama, Russia and Ukraine.

Security company FireEye and spam-tracking service SpamHaus worked with local internet service providers (ISPs) to shut down the illegal network.

A botnet is a network of computers that has...

"The threat to intellectual property is very real. Even the most motivated, committed and enthusiastic staff can and will make mistakes that may result in significant data loss. By investing in appropriate technology solutions coupled with regular staff training and awareness sessions to mitigate your inside threat, you are taking proactive steps that should see this problem significantly...

"The impending cyber threat requires the immediate attention of Congress, according to a top intelligence official who singled out China, Russia and a failure of policy keeping up with the speed of technology as top threats to the nation’s critical networks."

"The Senate failed Thursday to pass legislation to protect the U.S. electrical grid, water supplies and other critical industries from cyberattack and electronic espionage despite dire warnings from top national security officials about the potential for devastating assaults on American computer networks."

"A cyberspace security expert says he received a series of emails from an Iranian nuclear scientist complaining that computers at two plants bizarrely began playing a heavy metal anthem over the weekend."

"Iran has confirmed that the Flame virus attacked the computers of high-ranking officials causing a 'massive' data loss."

"Tehran has embarked on an ambitious plan to boost its offensive and defensive cyber-warfare capabilities and is investing $1 billion in developing new technology and hiring new computer experts.

Iran has been the victim of a number of cyber attacks in recent years, some attributed to Israel. The most famous attack was by a virus called Stuxnet which is believed, at its prime, to have...

"Amid Israel's plot to wage a major cyber war against Iran, an Iranian lawmaker says the country's security and intelligence bodies have 'very strong capabilities' to counter such cyber attacks.

The US and Israel are well aware that Iran has made considerable progress in terms of countering cyber attacks, said Avaz Heidarpour, a member of the National Security and Foreign Policy...

"An Iranian official says the country has transferred the location of most of its government websites from foreign-based hosting agencies to new computer facilities inside the country to avert potential cyber attacks. The country’s deputy minister for communications and information technology, Ali Hakim Javadi, Reuters reports that more than 90 percent of all the Iranian government’s websites...

"Iran is gearing up for a cyberwar campaign after being hit with coordinated, sophisticated cyberattacks last year that reportedly crippled its Natanz nuclear enrichment facility.

The Islamic Republic plans 'to fight our enemies with abundant power in cyberspace and Internet warfare,' according to Brigadier Gen. Gholamreza Jalali, who leads the country’s Passive Defense Organization...

"Iran is recruiting a hacker army to target the U.S. power grid, water systems and other vital infrastructure for cyberattack in a future confrontation with the United States, security specialists will warn Congress Thursday."

"Fearing cyber espionage attacks, Iran reportedly plans to shift official government bodies offline in response to several online attacks in the past years."

"Iran is to move key ministries and state bodies off the worldwide internet next month in an effort to shield them behind a secure computer wall from disruptive cyber attacks like the Stuxnet and Flame viruses."

"This awful infosec July is over, and finally we can sum up the Cyber Attacks reported during this month. I collected all the available information and inserted it inside the following chart. Where possible (that is enough information available) I tried to estimate the cost of the attacks using the indications from the Ponemon’s insitute according to which the average cost of a Data Breach is...

"As has been widely reported, Mallesons partners voted last Wednesday to approve the merger with Chinese firm King & Wood. Not that we thought they’d do otherwise, despite our controversial editorial to the contrary."

"Terms like 'cyber-war' have been used to describe the denial-of-service attacks waged by anonymous hackers against the companies that cut off support for WikiLeaks. But the attacks were nothing like a real cyber-war, security experts say, and calling them that could have unintended consequences."

"Terms like 'cyber-war' have been used a lot in the wake of the recent denial-of-service attacks on MasterCard, Visa and other entities that cut off support for WikiLeaks. But do these attacks really qualify?"

"An electronic spy network, based mainly in China, has infiltrated computers from government offices around the world, Canadian researchers say.

They said the network had infiltrated 1,295 computers in 103 countries."

"Cybercriminals have opened a new front in their battle to infect computers with malware - PC production lines.

Several new computers have been found carrying malware installed in the factory, suggests a Microsoft study."

"McAfee has revealed research pointing to what could be the largest global co-ordinated cyber attack to date, spanning 14 countries and compromising a staggering 72 organisations including the United Nations, defence contractors and even Olympic committees over a five-year period."

"Earlier this week, the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia granted Microsoft's Digital Crimes Unit permission to disrupt more than 500 different strains of malware with the potential for targeting millions of innocent people. Codenamed 'Operation b70,' this legal action and technical disruption proceeded from a Microsoft study which found that cybercriminals infiltrate...

"A customer in Shenzhen, China, took a brand new laptop out of its box and booted it up for the first time. But as the screen lit up, the computer began taking on a life of its own. The machine, triggered by a virus hidden in its hard drive, began searching across the Internet for another computer.

The laptop, supposedly in pristine, super-fast, direct-from-the-factory condition, had...

"Defense Secretary Robert Gates created a new military command dedicated to cyber security on Tuesday, reflecting the Obama administration's plans to centralize and elevate computer security as a major national-security issue.

In a memo to senior Pentagon officials, Mr. Gates said he intends to recommend that Lt. Gen. Keith Alexander, director of the National Security Agency, take on...

"Newt Gingrich isn’t the only politician who’s freaked out by China and Russia’s online spying. But the new Republican presidential frontrunner may be the highest-profile political figure all but openly calling for cyberwar with Moscow and Beijing.

'I think that we have to treat state-based covert activities as the equivalent of acts of war,' Gingrich said in response to a question...

"In North Korea's mountainous Hyungsan region, a military academy specializing in electronic warfare has been churning out 100 cybersoldiers every year for nearly two decades."

"A recent attack paralyzing the computer system of Nonghyup Bank has raised fears about North Korea’s cyber terrorism capabilities, especially following the past North Korean DDoS attacks on July 7, 2009, and March 4, 2011.

Although the two previous DDoS attacks only resulted in confusion for users of major governmental websites, the Nonghyup attack has shocked analysts due to the real...

"Hackers who appear to be based in China have conducted a 'coordinated, covert and targeted' campaign of cyber espionage against major Western energy firms, according to a report expected to be issued Thursday by cybersecurity firm McAfee Inc."

"Three years after what the Pentagon called the most significant breach of U.S. military networks ever, new versions of the malware blamed for the attack are still roiling U.S. networks, Reuters has learned.

The malware at issue, known as 'agent.btz,' infiltrated the computer systems of the U.S. Central Command in 2008, at a time when it was running wars in Iraq and Afghanistan."

"Today, we come to you about Operation Watchtower."

"The Pakistan Cyber Army seems to have struck again and this time it has attacked Congress president Sonia Gandhi's profile page on the party website. It is suspected that a Pakistani hacker who goes by the name of 'Khantastic haXor' is behind the incident. 'Khantastic haXor is a part of Pakistan Cyber Army. Earlier too, he has attacked many Indian government websites including that of Bharat...

"Military leaders warned Congress on Wednesday that steeper cuts in defense spending, as either a policy choice or a consequence of political gridlock, will gut the armed forces and sap U.S. global influence.

Their predictions of doom, while disputed by some private defense and foreign policy analysts, reflect a consensus Pentagon view that even as the U.S. winds down its military...

"High profile attacks, such as Aurora, Stuxnet and Zeus leave us in no doubt that cross border cyber attacks are real and not just plots for action movies. They also indicate a significant game change. Last month the Pentagon declared cyberspace is a new warfare domain. And even though that could be offensive or defensive, perhaps the best starting offense might be the best defense."

"Hackers in China are the world’s 'most active and persistent perpetrators' of economic cyber espionage, and Russian spy agencies are actively seeking to steal U.S. technology, according to a report released by American intelligence services on Thursday.

The 2011 report by the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive (ONCIX) included a focus on cyber threats for the first...

"RSA has traced the attack against its network, resulting in the compromise of sensitive information relating to its two-factor SecurID authentication system, to two groups, working for one nation state."

"RSA Security is offering to provide security monitoring or replace its well-known SecurID tokens—devices used by millions of corporate workers to securely log on to their computers—'for virtually every customer we have,' the company's Chairman Art Coviello said in an interview.

In a letter to customers Monday, the EMC Corp. unit openly acknowledged for the first time that intruders had...

"Security experts say Google, along with dozens of other major companies, was the victim of a concerted espionage effort that they say came from within China and exploited flaws in e-mail attachments to get into networks of major financial and technology firms.

At least 34 companies, including Adobe, Symantec, Yahoo and Dow Chemical, were attacked, according to industry sources. On...

"Cyber attacks may not be a new phenomenon but the recent successes scored against high-profile targets including CitiGroup, Google, RSA and government contractors such as Lockheed Martin underscore the targets' current failure to block security threats enabled by the Internet. Malicious hackers use the very same technology that enables online banking, entertainment and myriad other...

"A massive advanced persistent threat (APT)-type attack campaign has been ongoing worldwide for five years that has stolen intellectual property from 70 government agencies, international corporations, nonprofits, and others in 14 countries, according to a new published report in Vanity Fair.

The so-called 'Operation Shady Rat,' which is detailed in a new report by McAfee, has mostly...

"SOPA and PIPA may have been put on hold -- thanks to possibly the most contentious uproar seen on Capitol Hill and in the tech world ever -- but other legislation was introduced this week to combat online piracy."

"IT security and data protection firm Sophos has today published the mid-year 2010 Security Threat Report, revealing the findings of a survey into attitudes towards cyberwarfare and detailing other trends and developments in IT security for the first half of 2010."

"Researchers who launched an experimental cyber attack caused a generator to self-destruct, alarming the federal government and electrical industry about what might happen if such an attack were carried out on a larger scale, CNN has learned."

"The Spanish police said on Friday that they had apprehended three men suspected of computer hacking in connection with recent attacks on Sony’s PlayStation Network as well as corporate and government Web sites around the world.

The National Police identified the three as the local leadership of the shadowy international network of computer hackers known as Anonymous, which has claimed...

"Customers of a telecommunications firm received an e-mail recently explaining a problem with their latest order. They were asked to go to the company website, via a link in the e-mail, to provide personal information—like their birthdates and Social Security numbers. But both the e-mail and the website were bogus.

It's a real-life, classic case of 'phishing'—a virtual trap set by cyber...

"The database is the heart of most Web applications: it stores the data needed for the Websites and applications to 'survive'. It stores user credentials and sensitive financial information. It stores preferences, invoices, payments, inventory data, etc. It is through the combination of a database and Web scripting language that we as developers can produce sites that keep clients happy, pay...

"The Stuxnet computer virus, created to sabotage Iran's nuclear programme, was the result of collaboration between at least one Western power and the Israeli secret service, a British cyber security expert has found."

"More malware is now coming out of China than from any other country, according to a new report from Symantec.

The United States still leads the world in the number of malware attacks sent from mail servers. Symantec's report found U.S. mail servers responsible for distributing 36.6 percent of all global malware in March, followed by China at 17.8 percent and Romania at 16.5 percent....

"Fears of an April Fools' Day attack by the so-called 'Conficker' worm – fears that were confirmed this week when 700 computers at the University of Utah were attacked – raised the profile of the potential for cyber-criminals to enter networks and siphon off private information."

"The bill was supposed to fight cyber threats – but it fell woefully short of protecting users' privacy. Good job it didn't pass"

"Last year, the U.S. Navy bought 59,000 microchips for use in everything from missiles to transponders and all of them turned out to be counterfeits from China.

Wired reports the chips weren't only low-quality fakes, they had been made with a 'back-door' and could have been remotely shut down at any time.

If left undiscovered the result could have rendered useless U.S. missiles...

"Sony announced their network had been breached, but released limited details regarding the attack vector. This announcement was a precursor to a series of new attacks against other Sony online properties and ultimately the shutdown of the PlayStation Network. On May 13th, Veracode Researcher, Chris Lytle, published his blog post on the anatomy of the PSN attack."

"When China’s president, Hu Jintao, visits here next week, the exchange rate between Chinese and American currency will inevitably become a big topic of conversation.

China has been holding down the value of its currency, the renminbi, for years, making Chinese exports to the United States cheaper and American exports to China more expensive. The renminbi’s recent rise has been too...

"A group calling itself Lulz Security embarked on a nihilistic hacking spree against high-profile corporations and government agencies. Yesterday morning, it was boasting of its latest coup – bringing down the websites of the Brazilian government and the president – an action marked with a Twitter message beginning 'TANGO DOWN.'"

"Milton Friedman once said that there is 'nothing so permanent as a temporary government program.' I would add to this: there is nothing so permanent as a war on terror. Ask the British or the Israelis or any other government which has decided to wage a similar war.

The 2001 signing of the PATRIOT Act marked the beginning of a 'temporary' and unofficial state of emergency for the...

"Pakistan and India are upgrading their Cyber War capabilities, partly by calling on allies for help. India has become a big customer of Israeli military equipment, and this now includes assistance in protecting themselves from Cyber War threats, especially from Pakistan. Meanwhile, Pakistan has found China to be a useful source of Cyber War technology. While Israel has some of the best...

"Throughout history new technologies have revolutionised warfare, sometimes abruptly, sometimes only gradually: think of the chariot, gunpowder, aircraft, radar and nuclear fission. So it has been with information technology. Computers and the internet have transformed economies and given Western armies great advantages, such as the ability to send remotely piloted aircraft across the world to...

"Business-technology folks would love to believe their IT systems are well-protected, not only from the destructive worms and viruses that speed across the Internet but from the increasingly sophisticated attacks that target people and their valuable data. But the ready-for-anything attitude that's prevalent among IT pros is misleading and even dangerous. Sure, IT defenses may be stronger than...

"Some hackers use software and hardware to express themselves creatively—either solving entirely novel technical challenges or finding new ways to skin the same old cats. Others are motivated by money, power, politics, or pure mischief. They steal identities, deface Web sites, and break into supposedly secure and certainly sensitive databases.

We at IEEE Spectrum have written dozens of...

"TWO GROUPS operating on behalf of a single nation state were responsible for the attack on RSA Security that breached its IT systems earlier this year and allowed hackers to subsequently attack a defence contractor, according to the security vendor.

Speaking at a press Q&A during the RSA Conference Europe show, executives from the vendor revealed more about what happened during and...

"USCYBERCOM is responsible for planning, coordinating, integrating, synchronizing, and directing activities to operate and defend the Department of Defense information networks and when directed, conducts full-spectrum military cyberspace operations (in accordance with all applicable laws and regulations) in order to ensure U.S. and allied freedom of action in cyberspace, while denying the...

"Sources have confirmed that the U.S. Department of Defense over recent months purchased 59,000 microchips to use in Navy equipment that control everything from missiles to transponders, according to report in Joseph Farah’s G2 Bulletin.

But all of the chips turned out to be cheap knock-offs from China, and they ultimately were not installed, according to sources."

"American intelligence agencies, in an unusually blunt public criticism of China and Russia, reported to Congress on Thursday that those two foreign governments steal valuable American technology over the Internet as a matter of national policy."

"China almost certainly would mount a cyberattack on the U.S. in the event of a conflict, and the U.S. has no clear policy to determine how to respond appropriately, a congressional advisory panel is set to warn on Thursday."

"Ukraine police arrested five individuals accused of being part of a cyber-crime ring that used the Zeus Trojan to steal $70 million from U.S. bank accounts, the FBI said Oct. 1.

The arrests were made Sept. 30, and targeted people the FBI described as 'key suspects responsible for this overarching scheme.' Authorities in the United States and the United Kingdom the week of Sept. 27 have...

"In a denial-of-service (DoS) attack, an attacker attempts to prevent legitimate users from accessing information or services. By targeting your computer and its network connection, or the computers and network of the sites you are trying to use, an attacker may be able to prevent you from accessing email, websites, online accounts (banking, etc.), or other services that rely on the affected...

"The newly-opened US Cyber Command is seeking authority to carry out offensive operations around the world to protect US interests.

These operations could include destroying, disrupting or degrading targeted computers or networks to prevent cyber attacks."

"A US hacker who sold access to thousands of hijacked home computers has been jailed for 30 months."

"A vast electronic spying operation has infiltrated computers and has stolen documents from hundreds of government and private offices around the world, including those of the Dalai Lama, Canadian researchers have concluded.

In a report to be issued this weekend, the researchers said that the system was being controlled from computers based almost exclusively in China, but that they...

"Operation Aurora, the moniker given to the attacks on Google and several others, has developed into a security nightmare and political chess game. With so many questions left unanswered, there is still no clear proof that Aurora was a government attack. In truth, public information points not to a sanctioned attack by the Chinese government, but Malware kits and criminals keeping with...

"Congress is considering legislation allowing the government to search through Internet traffic for early warnings of cyberattacks. The bills are controversial — worries about government surveillance have led to protests online."

"In reality, any threat from China will take a far less antiquated [atomic bomb] form. Just as it is already a world leader in future technologies - such as solar panels - so it has invested deeply in cyberwarfare, which it routinely uses to steal sensitive industrial materials such as blueprints.

If it ever clashed with the US (and a naval conflict in the North Pacific is the most...

"Industrial espionage is an attempt to gain access to information about a company’s plans, products, clients or trade secrets. In most cases, such conduct, especially when it involves accessing trade secrets is illegal. Sometimes rival companies will search through public records in order to make guesses about a company’s actions. However, when the search goes from the public to the private,...

"Conficker, also known as Downadup or Kido, is the latest super virus to spread around the Internet and has security experts in a panic. When last we checked, about a week ago, Conficker had already spread to 9 million PCs, with little sign of slowing. Now it has infected at least 10 million PCs and experts believe there may be up to 350 million vulnerable computers out there.

The worm...

"Anonymous, understood to be a loose-knit group of internet activists, tweeted: 'We are glad to tell you that mastercard.com is down and it's confirmed.'

Another message read: 'There are some things WikiLeaks can't do. For everything else, there's Operation Payback.'"

"Details of a highly organized, sustained campaign of computerized attacks against businesses and governments across 14 countries were disclosed yesterday by the security company McAfee.

The attacks stretch back almost five years, and ranged in duration from one month to 28 months. They affected 32 types of organizations, including government agencies and defense, construction,...

Chart or Graph

"Major credit cards, gaming platforms, governments, banks and news organizations have all been the victims of cyber attacks."

GhostNet had a frightening range that spread all over the globe. Though the United States was not heavily infiltrated by the worm, there were a handful of companies affected.

"Some companies completely refuse to produce their products in or transfer their intellectual properties to countries they believe pose a threat."

The chart shows the United States having by far the most cyber-attacks, followed by China and then Germany.

This map gives us a picture of cyber-attacks by country.

The rapid growth in technology coupled with the expanding amount of information on the Internet has opened the floodgates for cyber-criminals.

This graph illustrated the "work-flow" of cyber theft.

"Certain countries are emerging as clear sources of threats to sensitive data, in particular to intellectual property."

Top nations affected by cyber crime.

"Bar Chart 2 summarizes the types of attack methods experienced by participating companies. Virtually all organizations experienced attacks relating to viruses, worms and/or trojans over the four-week benchmarking period."

Here's a full list of all GhostNet infections around the world.

"Here’s an updated version of our Cyber Attacks graphic showing a world map and chart illustrating targeted cyber attacks on more than 70 companies, government bodies and organizations...."

"The following graphic lists the ten most/least corrupt countries based on Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index for 2011. The Corruption Perception Index assigns countries and territories with scores between 0 (highly corrupt) and 10 (very clean)."

"Data represents the largest DDoS attack reported each year by 120 ISPs participating in the World Wide Infrastructure Security Survey. Shaded red area is estimate of maximum Wikileaks retaliatory attack size. Complete numbers for 2010 attacks have not been released yet (light orange)."

Despite efforts to curb this threat through increasing regulation and laws over the Internet, more and more people are affected by cyber-crime every day.

This timeline provides a history of some of the most famous hacking cases since the 1960s.

This infographic offers a look at some of the most startling facts and numbers on the problem of identity theft.

"Respondents estimated that intellectual property worth approximately $17 million per firm is stored, accessed and managed overseas."

In just one month during 2011 American companies faced a plethora of serious cyber-attacks.

"On April 22, 2011 Sony announced their network had been breached, but released limited details regarding the attack vector."

"Details of a highly organized, sustained campaign of computerized attacks against businesses and governments across 14 countries were disclosed...by the security company McAfee."

"Operation Shady RAT shares many similarities with the Operation Aurora and Night Dragon large-scale compromises also uncovered by researchers at the security firm, most notably in that Chinese hackers are again the prime suspects."

"The United States still leads the world in the number of malware attacks sent from mail servers. Symantec's report (PDF) found U.S. mail servers responsible for distributing 36.6 percent of all global malware in March, followed by China at 17.8 percent and Romania at 16.5 percent.

"Some hackers use software and hardware to express themselves creatively—either solving entirely novel technical challenges or finding new ways to skin the same old cats."

"The growing reliance of utilities on Internet-based communication has increased the vulnerability of control systems to spies and hackers, according to government reports."

"'Over 30,000 Iranian websites, including those of key institutions such as ministries, were hosted abroad, mainly in North America,' the Islamic Republic News Agency cited Ali Hakim Javadi, the Deputy Minister for Communications and Information Technology, as saying without specifying the countries involved."

This chart displays the number of cyber attacks on various countries per day and per number of users.

"[S]ome believe the government is just itching to find an excuse to adopt unprecedented Internet monitoring powers, and cyber-war would be just the ticket."

"A vast electronic spying operation has infiltrated computers and has stolen documents from hundreds of government and private offices around the world, including those of the Dalai Lama, Canadian researchers have concluded."

This bar graph shows the top 10 nations which both produce and distribute as well as receive the most malware.

Despite the increase in Chinese, Russian and North Korean malware, the United States still hosts the most of any country.

"Most companies aren't planning to take any major leaps in outsourcing security tasks."

Analysis Report White Paper

"The United States should seek to develop and maintain cyber warfare rules in order to establish internationally accepted norms, mitigate damage to critical governmental, commercial and private resources, and help hold belligerent actors accountable."

"Zbot, also known as Zeus, is a malware package that is readily available for sale and also traded in underground forums. The package contains a builder that can generate a bot executable and Web server files (PHP, images, SQL templates) for use as the command and control server."

"This Report sets forth the Commission’s analysis of the U.S.-China relationship in the topical areas designated by the Commission’s Congressional mandate; these are the areas the Commission is to consider, and about which it is to make recommendations to the Congress."

This article explains Chinese military thought that supports their cyberattack activities.

Chinese strategies rely on electrons in unanticipated ways to fulfill stratagems such as 'kill with a borrowed sword' or 'exhaust the enemy at the gate and attack him at your ease.'

Written for freshmen members of Congress, the introduction states, "This briefing book attempts to provide you with the foundation to improve your knowledge of intelligence issues. The memos in this book give you important basic information about the Intelligence Community and outline the central issue."

"A series of high-profile events in 2010 and 2011 highlighted the increasing and multifaceted threat of cyberattacks."

"Assorted 'cyber attacks' have attracted much attention in the past few months. One headline in this genre recently proclaimed 'Anonymous Declares War on Orlando.' This is wrong on so many levels that it almost defies analysis."

"There is real risk to both the bilateral relationship and to China’s relations with the rest of the world. The issue is not war, but cyber espionage. Cyber espionage exacerbates tensions and the situation will get worse until this changes."

"On April 8, a front page article was published in the Wall Street Journal on the dangers posed by cyberspies to the U.S. electrical grid. According to senior intelligence officers who spoke with the Journal, 'Cyberspies have penetrated the U.S. electrical grid and left behind software programs that could be used to disrupt the system.'"

"The American military faces a growing threat of potentially fatal equipment failure—and even foreign espionage—because of counterfeit computer components used in warplanes, ships, and communication networks."

Daniel Solove addresses the issue of privacy in the Information Age. He claims the court has reverted to the discredited Olmstead Fourth Amendment jurisprudence.

"Hackers have attacked America’s defense establishment, as well as companies from Google to Morgan Stanley to security giant RSA, and fingers point to China as the culprit. The author gets an exclusive look at the raging cyber-war—Operation Aurora! Operation Shady rat!—and learns why Washington has been slow to fight back."

"In 2010, we entered a new decade in the world of cybersecurity. The prior decade was stained with immaturity, reactive technical solutions, and a lack of security sophistication that promoted critical outbreaks, such as Code Red, Nimda, Blaster, Sasser, SQL Slammer, Conficker, and myDoom—to name a few."

"Although piracy of software on personal computers (PC) declined in many countries in 2007, fast growing PC markets in some of the world’s highest piracy nations caused overall numbers to worsen—a trend that is expected to continue. Moreover, dollar losses from piracy rose by $8 billion to nearly $48 billion."

"The Russian cyber crime underground has evolved into a sophisticated, if loose-knit community with its own periodical literature and cultural mores. The 'Russian hacker' has become a stereotype. But as with many stereotypes, there is some truth involved."

The objective of this paper is to educate both IT staff and senior management for small-medium sized businesses (SMB's) as to the network security threats that exist. The paper presents a digest of industry best practices for network security, which will hopefully assist SMB's in setting priorities for securing the perimeter of a typical SMB network.

"On January 14, 2010 McAfee Labs identified a zero-day vulnerability in Microsoft Internet Explorer that was used as an entry point for Operation Aurora to exploit Google and at least 20 other companies. Microsoft has since issued a security bulletin and patch."

"Computers are immensely complex in comparison to their paper counterparts, leading to a plethora of previously unseen security vulnerabilities. Even more problematic is the constant change and increased interaction between computing systems, driven by the need for new functionality."

"...I have often been asked by our worldwide customers if they should worry about such sophisticated penetrations themselves or if that is a concern only for government agencies, defense contractors, and perhaps Google . My answer in almost all cases has been unequivocal: absolutely."

"Russia and the United States have been unable to establish a common understanding in their bilateral diplomacy on most aspects of cybersecurity."

Despite widespread awareness of the impact of cybercrime, cyber attacks continue to occur frequently and result in serious financial consequences for businesses and government institutions.

The Senate has introduced the Cybersecurity Act of 2012. A floor vote is expected in March or April. The Cybersecurity Act contains laudable elements—enhancement of and protection for private-sector information sharing are crucial.

This article provides a brief summary of the Patriot Act. It explains the legislative background and methods used to pass this bill. Then, it explains the new powers created by the Patriot Act. It explains how these searches are fundamentally different then prior precedent.

"The United States, as the world's strongest economy and also the most technically advanced, is the center of the world's research and development and, therefore, the principle target of this new wave of economic espionage."

"The purpose of this report is two-fold: 1. To present an assessment of the state of economic crime in the United States, and; 2. Based on that assessment, to indicate areas where additional research, legislative action, training, cooperation between law enforcement and industry, and international cooperation are required."

This article addresses three aspects of the civilian and military use of China’s Internet.

"By outsourcing some aspects of operations, U.S. businesses and multinational corporations have been able to increase the amount of value built into products compared to the same dollars expended domestically and have further been able to diversify market holdings in Asia after reaching saturation points in U.S. and European markets."

"Computer network exploitation represents the leading edge of signals intelligence in the information age. The proliferation of computer systems throughout governments, businesses, and civic organizations represents a boon for would-be cyber spies."

Supply chains must be secured against any form of man-made and natural disruption. This certainly isn’t a new revelation. Some hundred years ago commercial shipping was threatened by pirates and renegades like Anne Bonny, Sir Francis Drake or Klaus Störtebeker, and so transport ships were equipped with cannons and crews ready for a fight.

"You may have heard of denial-of-service attacks launched against websites, but you can also be a victim of these attacks. Denial-of-service attacks can be difficult to distinguish from common network activity, but there are some indications that an attack is in progress."

"As we face one of the worst recessions in recent memory, protecting a company’s critical information assets like intellectual property and sensitive data has never been more important, yet challenging. A single breach or loss can cause irreparable financial damage to a company’s reputation, its share price and customer confidence."

Video/Podcast/Media

"H.R. 3523, a piece of legislation dubbed the Cyber Intelligence Sharing and Protection Act (or CISPA for short), has been created under the guise of being a necessary implement in America’s war against cyberattacks. But the vague verbiage contained within the pages of the paper could allow Congress to circumvent existing exemptions to online privacy laws and essentially monitor, censor and...

"National Security Agency whistle blowers Thomas Drake, former senior official; Kirk Wiebe, former senior analyst; and William Binney, former technical director, return to 'Viewpoint' to talk about their allegations that the NSA has conducted illegal domestic surveillance. All three men are providing evidence in a lawsuit by the Electronic Frontier Foundation against the NSA.

Drake says...

"Charlie Rose and Erica Hill speak with Steve Kroft about a cyber attack that crippled the Iranian nuclear program for a time."

"In a stunning move that has civil libertarians stuttering with disbelief, the U.S. Senate has just passed a bill that effectively ends the Bill of Rights in America.

The National Defense Authorization Act is being called the most traitorous act ever witnessed in the Senate, and the language of the bill is cleverly designed to make you think it doesn't apply to Americans, but toward the...

"Anonymous, or Anon, is a movement made up of a number of nameless internet activists from around the world.

For many, the 'hacktivist' group has become the face of the new cyber-war against oppressive governments and all-powerful corporates. Others say the group's actions are reckless.

Describing itself as 'the freedom of speech, the freedom of information and the freedom of...

"In this address, Bruce examined the future of cyber war and cyber security. Mr. Schneier explored the current debate on the threat of cyber war, asking whether or not the threat had been over-stated. He then explored the range of attacks that have taken place, including the Latvian DOS attack and the Stuxnet worm. The address concluded with an exploration of the future of international...

Sen. Wyden (OR-R) and the Senate Intelligence Committee, ask an intelligence panel about Iran's nuclear threat and U.S. terrorists threats, particularly with regard to the theft of 'intellectual property' and 'economic secrets.' Bottom line: US. must expand intelligence and military agency policies to prevent 'corporate espionage.'

This video explains how the nation of Estonia came under a Cyber Warfare attack in 2007 and how the same thing could happen to the United States.

"In the United States, we are Internet dependent. Our financial systems, power grids, telecommunications, water supplies, flight controls and military communications are all online – making them vulnerable to countless attacks by cyber criminals. The goal could be a 10-minute blackout, an attack on our national security, a stock trading glitch or the theft of millions of dollars worth of...

A panel of experts discuss the state of cyber-security in the United States and certain measures that may be taken to improve the system. At time 1:18:00 the discussion becomes especially relevant.

CNN report on the Aurora experiment.

"The U.S. government is about to declare a new war, but this time the enemy is a virtual one. A string of attacks on government websites by hackers has driven American policy-makers into a state of high-alert over a so-called terrorist threat. But some doubt the danger even exists, as RT's Lucy Kafanov reports."

"Divided into two teams, cyber attackers and cyber defenders get a lesson in an 'attack' on critical infrastructure."

President Obama unveils his new plan to fight cyber-crime. At time 09:35 he announces his plan for CYBERCOM, a new branch of the Defense Department that will be solely devoted to combating cyber-warfare and intellectual property theft.

"Professor Howard Schmidt, ISF President and one time security adviser to the White House discusses how and why corporate espionage is taking place."

CNN offers a brief video demonstrating the devastating effects a cyber-attack could have on America's electrical grid.

What can the Stuxnet worm accomplish? Who can use it? Does it threaten Americans?

Primary Document

"In October 2007, the Government of Canada announced that it would participate in discussions towards an Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA). ACTA negotiating partners, a group which includes along with Canada, Australia, the European Union and its member countries, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Singapore, Switzerland, and the United States, concluded negotiations in...

This paper presents a comprehensive open source assessment of China’s capability to conduct computer network operations (CNO) both during peacetime and periods of conflict.

"Anyone ever misquoted recognizes the importance of context. Wrong assumptions about concepts, words, and phrases easily lead to misunderstanding. In the law enforcement community, officers who use a weapon in the line of duty to defend themselves or innocent bystanders may kill but not murder. Context often serves as the crucial variable justifying the use of deadly force. Murder is always...

Dr. Tafoya defines cyber-terrorism and cyber-warfare, detailing the tactics used and the preventative measures the U.S. government takes to avoid such attacks.

The FBI provides a nice visual depicting a common chain of cyber-theft.

"President Obama has declared that the 'cyber threat is one of the most serious economic and national security challenges we face as a nation' and that 'America's economic prosperity in the 21st century will depend on cybersecurity.'"

"A BILL To enhance the security and resiliency of the cyber and communications infrastructure of the United States."

"Cyberwarfare raises issues of growing national interest and concern. Cyberwarfare can be used to describe various aspects of defending and attacking information and computer networks in cyberspace, as well as denying an adversary's ability to do the same. Some major problems encountered with cyber attacks, in particular, are the difficulty in determining the origin and nature of the attack...

"The Administration continues to invest in the Nation’s military servicemembers and their families and provides them with the training, equipment, and infrastructure needed to maintain military readiness. The President's 2012 Budget for the Department of Defense (DOD) reflects that commitment, proposing $553 billion - an increase of $22 billion above the 2010 appropriation."

This act intends to protect American government and businesses from any intellectual property theft or espionage.

"The Internet allows businesses of all sizes and from any location to reach new and larger markets and provides opportunities to work more efficiently by using computer-based tools. Whether a business is thinking of adopting cloud computing or just using email and maintaining a website, cybersecurity should be a part of the plan. Theft of digital information has become the most commonly...

"The House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (herein referred to as 'the Committee') initiated this investigation in November 2011 to inquire into the counterintelligence and security threat posed by Chinese telecommunications companies doing business in the United States."

China has made great progress in its pursuit of economic growth and development, which has allowed China to achieve higher living standards for the Chinese people and has increased China’s international profile.

"The Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation (hereinafter the Military Doctrine) is one of the fundamental strategic planning documents in the Russian Federation and constitutes a system of the views officially adopted in the state on preparations for armed defense and on the armed protection of the Russian Federation."

To authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2012 for military activities of the Department of Defense, for military construction, and for defense activities of the Department of Energy, to prescribe military personnel strengths for such fiscal year....

This piece of legislation is cited as "AN ACT To promote the national security by providing for a Secretary of Defense; for a National Military Establishment; for a Department of the Army, a Department of the Navy, and a Department of the Air Force; and for the coordination of the activities of the National Military Establishment with other departments and agencies...

This is the sister bill of SOPA.

"Customers of a telecommunications firm received an e-mail recently explaining a problem with their latest order. They were asked to go to the company website, via a link in the e-mail, to provide personal information—like their birthdates and Social Security numbers. But both the e-mail and the website were bogus.

It’s a real-life, classic case of 'phishing'—a virtual trap set by cyber...

The stated intention of this act was to protect intellectual property through increased governmental regulation of the Internet. It has not yet passed into law.

"Last month I convened an emergency meeting of my cabinet and top homeland security, intelligence and defense officials. Across the country trains had derailed, including one carrying industrial chemicals that exploded into a toxic cloud. Water treatment plants in several states had shut down, contaminating drinking water and causing Americans to fall ill.

Our nation, it appeared, was...

"Text of a letter from the State Department to Julian Assange, the founder of whistleblowing website WikiLeaks, and his lawyer Jennifer Robinson concerning its intended publication of classified State Department documents. The letter, dated November 27, was released by the department."

"The Administration continues to invest in the Nation’s military servicemembers and their families and provides them with the training, equipment, and infrastructure needed to maintain military readiness. The President's 2012 Budget for the Department of Defense (DOD) reflects that commitment, proposing $553 billion - an increase of $22 billion above the 2010 appropriation.

The Budget...

"During the Carter administration, Congress passed the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, which created a new federal court to approve electronic surveillance of citizens and resident aliens alleged to be acting on behalf of a foreign power. Until now, the FISA court granted surveillance authority if foreign intelligence was the primary purpose of an...

"The cyber environment provides unprecedented opportunities for adversarial activities and is particularly vulnerable because of the nation's heavy reliance on information systems. A strong and well-protected U.S. information infrastructure is critical to virtually every aspect of maintaining our nation's security. Trusted insiders as well as external adversaries are targeting the U.S....

Books

FAQs

Could cyber-attacks be used to cause physical damage? What other vulnerabilities might be exploited in a cyber-attack? Could an attack disrupt infrastructure such as power grids? All these questions and more are answered in the FAQ below.

How likely is a domestic terror attack? Who might commit such an attack? What kind of damage could a domestic terror attack cause? What is the U.S. government doing to stop it? These questions and others are answered in this FAQ.

One of the most serious threats to national security, individual privacy, and protection of one's assets comes from Intellectual Property (I.P.) espionage. What kind of information may be stolen? Who is or has the capability of engaging in effective I.P. espionage? Has this already happened? What can the United States do? All these questions and more are answered in this FAQ.

Iran has been talked about for decades. Relations between Iran and the United States have been tense since the early 1950s. Some believe that Iran poses an existential threat to the U.S.; others maintain that, despite its rhetoric, it is mostly harmless. Does Iran pose a significant threat? What are the sentiments of its leaders and its citizens? Do they agree? Is Iran working on a...

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"Many parents and taxpayers feel helpless because the problems can seem so monumental. 'Kids Aren't Cars' director Kyle Olson reviews what he learned in the filmmaking process and the small things individuals can do that will add up to make a big difference." Here's Kyle being interviewed on a few things you can do and share with friends, family, and educators: Part 1Part 2
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While many documentaries on the education system focus on various examples of failure, "Flunked" takes a bit different tack. While certainly acknowledging and exposing the failures of the system, "Flunked" also seeks out individuals and approaches that ARE working in education. The hope is that these points of hope may serve as examples for others working in education.  Here's the trailer:...
Okay, so your friends and family keep telling you to jump on the social media bandwagon, but you have no idea what the fuzz is about. Here’s the deal: The Internet gives liberty-loving folk like us an opportunity we have never had before: to make the case for individual liberty, limited government and free market economics instantly and globally. But with the vast amounts of information...

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The Association of American Educators (AAE) advances the teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection, as well as promoting excellence in education so that our members receive the respect, recognition and reward they deserve.
Are you concerned your child isn't getting the education necessary to compete in the global economy or even, perhaps, to carry on the lessons and learning of Western Civilization? If so, you have a number of choices. You could, of course, consider changing schools to a charter school, private school, or even homeschooling. If that's overwhelming for you right now, you can always supplement your...
Curiously, not a few individuals are realizing that their education (K-12 and even college) neglected to provide them with as much understanding of the world as they would like. At Intellectual Takeout, we believe that however you feel about your education, there is still much to be learned. To that end, we'd like to refer you to one book and a collection of "study guides" that serve as...
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Let's face it, most of us love to watch TV and movies. A wonderful way to spread ideas is to embrace our love of the cinema by hosting a movie night with friends and family.  There are numerous documentaries that do a fantastic job of sharing the ideas of liberty. You can pull a small group of friends together at your house or even consider asking a local restaurant or tavern to let you...
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While there are a variety of really good documentaries about the failing public school systems in America, "The Cartel" stands alone in its frontal assault on the teacher unions, particularly those in New Jersey. If you'd like to get an inside look into how some teacher unions operate and the effects they have on education, you'll want to watch "The Cartel."From the movie's website: "This movie...
How often do you hear conservatives being called a bunch of knuckle-dragging Neanderthals? Here's the reality: Conservatism, classical liberalism, and libertarianism have a rich, intellectual heritage reaching back many millennia. Our ideas are not just some historical relics from bygone eras; they are the very foundation of Western Civilization in general, amd the United States in particular....
Sadly (or happily for some), life goes on after college. So does the fight for freedom. Building friendships, networking, and growing the movement is critical after college. If our ideas are to be preserved and promoted, you need to stay involved. Plus, in a time when the individual seems to be ever more isolated and adrift, these groups can help plug you into social networks you can use....
Okay, so we don't expect you to drive a wooden stake into your flat screen. Plus, we're total hypocrites since we watch some TV. But here's the point: People waste a ton of time watching TV. If you're cool with government taking over your future, than keep watching Dancing with the Stars. If you consider yourself to be a free man or woman and want to live in a free society, then watch what you...
A great way to make a difference on your campus by spreading the ideas of individual rights, limited government, and free markets is to tutor. Plus, you can occasionally make a little bit of money. Depending on the subject matter, you will be discussing a variety of ideas, key thinkers, and theories. As anyone who has tutored knows, there are almost always opportunities to expand upon a topic....

On Campus

We've built Intellectual Takeout to provide you with quick, easy access to information. In time, we hope to become your one-stop-shop for the ideas of freedom. If your professor allows you to bring your laptop to class (if not, you can use an iPhone), we recommend keeping a tab open to Intellectual Takeout. As we continue to generate new content on the site, you will be able to fact check the...
When it comes to campus life injustices, student fees rank high on any list. On most campuses across the country a mandatory student fee is assessed to each student at the beginning of the year. A portion of this fee, which may be several hundred dollars, will go toward funding various political, religious, and interest groups.  A college requiring you to support groups espousing ideas which...
If you're not happy with the direction of the country and you want to take back your future, at some point you will have to do something. It's not enough to just know that we're going in the wrong direction. You actually have to step out and get involved. Most college campuses have conservative and libertarian student groups. Find one of them to join. Below is a list of some of the larger non-...
Now that you're at college and the initial excitement has worn off, maybe you're thinking that the course selection is a bit biased and you'd like some options. So how do you (the consumer) get the college (the business) to change up its offerings? It certainly won't be easy. Nevertheless it's something that should be done--particularly since you're footing the bill. A good, education in a free...
Whatever activism you choose to do on campus, you need to get your story out. A popular tactic used by the Left is to isolate and intimidate freedom-loving students. You're not alone and there are a lot of people in your city, state, and country that can probably support your efforts. They just need to know what is happening. Whenever you can, record in-class bias, discrimination against...
The reality is that most students (and people for that matter) won't speak out. It's called human nature and it was recognized in the Declaration of Independence: "...all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed." While you might feel alone when debating a teacher,...
In the land of the free and the home of the brave, speech codes are a particularly odious example of politically correct repression on many a college campus. In some ways, college campuses are the least free places for thinking and speech in America. Your best friend for fighting your school's repressive speech codes is the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE). Here's a short clip...
Running for office isn't easy, even in college. Not everyone is cut out for it, either. For those of you who are, this completely non-partisan section is for you. If you are inclined to pursue student government, we're not going to spend time on telling you how to get elected. A good place to go for ideas and training is CampusReform.org. Rather, we want to help you in office, as a believer in...